高考英语考点——祈使句

考点解读

一、祈使句的句式特征

祈使句常常是表达说话人对对方的劝告、叮嘱、请求或命令等。因此,祈使句中一般没有主语,但根据其句意,实际上是省略了主语you。祈使句句末用感叹号或句号,朗读时,常用降调。在表达请求或劝告时,在祈使句前或句末可加上please,以使句子的语气更加缓和或客气。祈使句一般没有时态的变化,也不能与情态动词连用。

Keep off the grass! 勿踩踏草地!

Put the boxes in the small room. 把那些盒子放到那个小房间里。

二、祈使句的肯定句式

祈使句的肯定句式一般分为以下三种类型:

  1. 行为动词原形+其他成分。

Make sentences after the model. 根据例句造句。

  1. Be动词+其他成分(形容词、名词或介词短语等)。

Be careful when crossing the street. 过马路时要小心。

  1. Let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其他成分。

Let him go back now. 让他现在回去吧。

1.(2018·北京卷·单项填空) In any unsafe situation, simply _________ the button and a highly-trained agent will get you the help you need.

A.press B. to press C. pressing     D. pressed

【答案】A

2.Always _______________ in mind that your main task is to get this company running smoothly.

A.to keep B. to have kept C. keep D. have kept

【参考答案】C

2.Always _______________ in mind that your main task is to get this company running smoothly.

A.to keep B. to have kept C. keep D. have kept

【参考答案】C

1.We forgot to bring our tickets, but please let us enter, _________?

A.do you B. can weC. will you D. shall we

I’m sure you’d rather she went to school by bus,__________?

A.hadn’t you wouldn’t you C. aren’t I   D. didn’t she

【参考答案】B

【答案解析】在反意疑问句中,如果主句的谓语动词是think, suppose, believe, imagine, be sure等,且主语为第一人称,简略问句仅有肯定或否定是与主句相对应,而主语和时态要与宾语从句一致。

五、祈使句的回答

祈使句的动作通常是表示将来发生的动作,所以回答祈使句时,一般用will或won’t。在回答具有否定意义的祈使句时,要注意两点:一是"形式一致",即Yes与will保持一致;No与won’t保持一致。二是"意思相反",即Yes是"不"的意思;No是"是"的意思。在回答时,要注意分析上下文语境中所提供的条件。

—Don’t go out, please. It’s raining heavily outside. 请不要出去。外面雨下得很大。

—Yes, I will. I have to meet my brother at the airport. 不行,我得去机场接我弟弟。

六、祈使句与陈述句的并列使用

祈使句后接陈述句时,须用连接词连接。如果祈使句与陈述句表示的是一种顺承关系时,要用并列连词and来连接;如果祈使句与陈述句存在一种否定条件关系时,要用并列连词or来连接。

Leave it with me and I will see what I can do. 把它留给我吧,我想想有没有办法。

Hurry up, or we’ll be late. 快点,否则我们要迟到了。

七、祈使句与条件状语从句的连用

祈使句与条件状语从句连用时,条件状语从句可置于祈使句前或后。

Tell him to make a phone call to me if he comes here tomorrow. 如果他明天来这儿的话,叫他给我来个电话。

八、祈使句的强调形式

祈使句的强调形式通常在肯定祈使句式前加上助动词Do(Do在句中无意义)。

Do shut up! 快住口!

九、特殊形式的祈使句

在英语中,有些祈使句不是以动词原形来引起一个祈使句,而是以一个名词短语来充当,且后接一个带有并列连接词的分句。实际上,这个充当祈使句的名词短语相当于一个条件状语从句。

More water and the young trees couldn’t have died. =If you had given them more water, the young trees couldn’t have died. 如果你给那些小树多浇点水的话,它们就不会死了。

__________and I’ll get the work finished.

A.Have one more hour B.One more hour

C.Given one more hour D.If I have one more hour

【参考答案】B

【答案解析】本题考查 "祈使句+and+简单句"的用法, 其中祈使句可转换成名词短语, 如One more word and I’ll beat you flat.因此B项正确。如果选C, D两项, 要去掉and。

十、运用祈使句的误区

祈使句往往容易与不定式、分词或条件状语从句相混淆。在平时的练习或测试中,如果稍不留神,就会出错。因此,要认真审题,认真分析句子结构,并根据上下文语境,作出正确判断。

_______________ your composition carefully, some spelling mistakes can be avoided.

A. Having checked B. Check

C. If you check D. To check

【参考答案】C

题组一 能力过关

1.单项填空

1.There are a few measures you can take to improve your grade, and one of them is: ____________ the material you do poorly in.

A.doesn’t ignore B.not to ignore

C.not ignore D.don’t ignore

2._____________ in the library, or you’ll be fined 10 dollars and banned from entering for one month.

A.If you smoke B.Not smoke

C.Not smoking D.No smoking

3.—Daddy, this is my favorite show. Could you…?

—No. _______________ before the TV set and I’ll cancel our plan to Disneyland tomorrow.

A.Have more minute B.One more minute

C.Given one more minute D.If you have one more minute

4.If you have a job,_____________ yourself to it and finally you’ll succeed.

A.do devote B. don’t devote

C.devoting D.not devoting

5._______________ your homework before you watch TV.

A.Do B.Doing

C.To do D.Done

6.Follow your doctor’s advice,______________ your illness will get better.

A.then B.or

C.and D.but

7._______________ to the answer, and then you will find where your problem is.

A.To refer B.Referring

C.Referred D.Refer

8.When you’ve finished with that book,  don’t forget to put it back on the shelf, ______________?

A.do you   B. don’t you

C.will you D. won’t you

II.语法填空

Stephen Hawking, a great physicist, was born in Oxford in 1942. He went to school at St. Albans. After graduation, Hawking first went to Oxford University    1    he studied physics, and then he furthered his study in Cambridge University. As he    2   (honest) admitted, he didn’t work hard. He was a lazy student, and he did very little work.   3   he still got good grades.

At the age of 20, he first noticed something wrong with him. His mother was very worried and took him   4   (see) a doctor. The doctor said he had   5   very serious illness and he   6   (die) before he was 23.

Hearing the news, he became very sad and   7   (disappoint). After coming out of the hospital, he came to know that nobody should lose hope. “Life is not fair, “he once said. “You just have to do the   8   (good) .” Then he conducted some of the most important scientific   9   (study) and worked at Cambridge University as a professor. His contributions   10   the world will live on for many years.

 

题组二 体验真题

1.(2017新课标卷I·短文改错)IThe instructor kept repeating the word(改为words), "Speed up!"

"Slow down!" "Turning left!"

2.(2016·新课标卷Ⅱ·语法填空)It could be anything —gardening, cooking, music, sports —but whatever it is, __________ (make) sure it’s a relief from daily stress rather than another thing to worry about.

高考英语

高考英语考点——强调句

2020-1-14 11:10:33

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