高考英语考点——it的用法

考点解读

考向一   it作人称代词

1.用来指代前文中提到的东西。既可指代具体的东西,也可指代一种情况。请看下面的例子

1)I hear you bought a new bike, can you show it to me?

2)If I can stop her coming to you, I shall do it.

3)—I want to stay here for a night.

—Your wife won’t like it

此时要注意与其他代词如that, one, those, this, another等的区别:

1.I hear you bought a new bike, I want to buy _______ , too.此处应填one,因为这里我并不是要买你的车,而是一辆新车,one =a new bike。

2.I have bought a new bike, but I still want to buy _______ .此处应填another。我已有了一辆,再买另一辆。another =another new bike。

3.We see him when we come to town, but _______ isn’t often.此处填that或it均可。指代前面我们去城里时可以看到他这一情况。

4.My seat is next to _______  of the headmaster.此处应填that,用来代替名词seat,that=the seat。

5.The bikes made this year are better than _______ made last years.此处应填those或the ones。代替前文的bikes,因其是复数概念,故用those或the ones,those /the ones=the bikes。

2.也可以指动物

Is this your dog?No, it isn’t.

3用来指代人。

说明某人的身份或者做某事的人;指代婴儿或儿童;在不清楚某人性别时,也可使用 it,尤其在问答的形式中更为常见。例如:

—Who is it? —It’s me.

Who is it there? It’s I (me/you/he….).

I thought it was Mary, but it was not she.

Her face lighted when she saw who it was.

1.(2018·新课标卷I·语法填空)If you are time poor, you need run for only half the time to get the same benefits as other sports, so perhaps we should all give___70___a try.

【答案】it \running

【解析】考查代词或名词的用法。我们都应该试试跑步。此处give it a try意为:试试。此处it可以指running。故填it或running。

2.—Who’s that at the door?

—__________ is the milkman.

A.He    B. It C. This D. That

【答案】B

【解析】考查代词的用法。句意:——谁在门外?——是送牛奶的。因为不知道门外的是什么人。故用it指代不清楚的人。故选B。

3.If I can help_______, I don’t like working late into the night.

A.so             B. that           C. it               D. them

【答案】C

考向二 非人称代词it

it有时并不指具体的东西,而泛指天气、时间、日期、距离、价值、度量、温度、环境等,称为非人称的it:

1.指天气:

It is a lovely day, isn’t  it?

It is a bit windy.

2.指时间: It was nearly midnight when she came back.

3.指环境: It was very quiet in  the  café.

4.指距离:It is half an hour’s  walk  to the city centre.

5指日期:

What’s the date today? It’s the eleventh, October.

6指季节:It is summer now.

7指度量:It is about 20 pound/kg

8.指价值:

— What’s the cost of the dictionary?

—It is sixty-three.

9指温度It’s 35 centigrade now. So I feel hot.

—He got his first book published. It turned out to be a bestseller.

—When was _____?

—_____ was in 2000 when he was still in college.

A.that; This        B. this; It            C. it; This        D. that; It

【答案】D

考向三 作形式主语,替代不定式、ing形式或主语从句

(一) 作形式主语替代主语从句

1.It is clear ( obvious, true, possible, certain….) that …该句型中it 是形式主语,真正的主语是that 引导的主语从句,常译为"清楚(显然,真的,肯定……)" 是主语从句最常见的一种结构。

It is very clear that he’s round and tall like a tree. = That  he’s round and tall like a tree is very clear.

② It is important ( necessary, right, strange, natural…) that ... 该句型和上一个同属一个句型;由于主句中的形容词不同,that 后的从句中要用虚拟语气(should + 动词原形),should 可以省去,建议记住该句型中的形容词。

It is important that we (should) learn English well.

It is necessary that he (should) remember these words.

2.① It is said (reported/ learned/believed/thought/known/told/hoped…..) that … 该句型中的it 仍是形式主语,真正主语是that 引导的主语从句;该结构常译为"据说(据报道,据悉……)"。

It is said that he has come to Beijing.

It is reported that another earth satellite has been put into orbit.

该句型常可以转换成含有宾语从句的复合句或者含有不定式作主补的简单句。例如:

It’s said that Tom has come back from abroad.→People say that Tom has come back from abroad.→He is said to have come back from abroad.

It is suggested ( ordered /demanded/insisted/commanded… ) that … 该句型和上一个同属一个句型,主句中的过去分词是表示请求,建议,命令等词时,that 后的从句要用虚拟语气(should + 动词原形),should 可以省;常译为"据建议;有命令…….)

It is suggested that the meeting ( should ) be put off.

It was ordered that we ( should ) arrive there in two hours.

3.It is a pity ( a shame /an honour/a good thing/a fact,/a surprise/… ) that … 该句型中,that后的从句一般用虚拟语气(should + 动词原形),should可省去.表示出乎意料,常译为"竟然"。没有这种意义时,则不用虚拟语气。

It is a pity that such a thing ( should ) happen in your class. 这种事竟然发生在你们班上,真是遗憾!

It is a pity that he is ill. 他生病了,真遗憾!

4.It happens (seems, looks, appears ) that…该句型中it是形式主语,that 引导的是主语从句,主句中的happen , seem等词是不及物动词。

It happened ( so happened ) that he met his teacher in the street. 碰巧……

It seems that he enjoys pop songs very much.看来他非常喜欢流行歌曲。

该句型可转换成含不定式的简单句。如上述两句可分别转换为:

He happened to meet his teacher in the street.

He seems to enjoy pop songs very much.

5.it代替连接代词或连接副词引导的从句作形式主语

(1)It is known(not decided,not made clear,found out,discussed,being discussed,being considered,a question,uncertain等)+连接代词或连接副词引导的从句。

It is still a question when we shall have our sports meet.

我们将什么时候举行运动会还是一个问题。

It is uncertain whether he can attend this conference or not.

他能否来开会还不能确定。

(2)It doesn’t matter(It’s no wonder;It doesn’t make too much difference等)+连接代词或连接副词引导的从句。

It doesn’t matter whether we go together or separately.我们一起去还是分开去都可以。

It is no wonder why he came here too late.他为什么来这么晚不足为怪

(二)作形式主语替代不定式常见的句型有:  

①. It is kind ( of sb. ) to do sth.该句型中的不定式短语是真正主语,如果不定式的逻辑主语是由 of引起,主句中的形容词必须是能表示逻辑主语特征的形容词。 常见的有: bad,  brave ,  careless,  clever,  cruel,  foolish,  good (好心的),  honest ,  horrible,  kind ,  lazy,  modest,  naughty,  nice(有教养的), polite, rude,  silly,  stupid ,  wise, wrong(错误的)等。 这个句型可以改写为:sb. is kind to do sth. 。

It is kind of you to say so. = You are kind to say so.

②It is necessary ( for sb. ) to do sth. 该句型与上一个同属一个句型,如果不定式的逻辑主语是由for引起,主句中的形容词通常是表示重要性,紧迫性,频繁程度,难易,安全等情况的形容词。 常见的形容词有:① important, necessary, natural ② easy, safe, common, normal, hard, difficult, dangerous, unusual, rare, impossible, pleasant等。 =在①中的形容词作表语可以用从句改写, 如: It is important for her to come to the party. = It is important that she (should ) come to the party.

2.It takes sb. … to do sth. 该句型中的不定式是真正的主语,it是形式主语,句型中的直接宾语是时间,常译为"做……要花费某人……"。

It took thousands of people many years to build the Great Wall.

(三) 作形式主语替代ing形式

It is no good / no use/useless doing sth. 该句型中的真正主语是动名词短语。

It is no good learning English without speaking English.

It’s useless trying to argue with Shylock.

考向四 作形式宾语,代替不定式、ing形式、宾语从句。

1.We think it important to learn a foreign language. 该句型中的it 作形式宾语,为了记忆方便我们可称该句型为"6123结构"。 6指主句中常用的动词:think, believe, make, find, consider, feel; 1指的是形式宾语it;

2.指的是宾补的两种形式:形容词或名词; 3指的是真正宾语的三种形式:不定式短语,动名词短语或that等引导的宾语从句。

We think it our duty to clean our classroom every day.

They found it difficult that they would finish their work in two days.

The professor thinks it no good reading without understanding.

The Internet makes it easier for companies to keep in touch with customers.

1.Susan made______ clear to me that she wished to make a new life for herself.

A.that      B. this      C. it       D. her

【答案】C

【解析】这是一个宾语从句,make的宾语是that引导的句子,在本句中用it做形式宾语代指that引导的宾语从句。句意为:Susan向我表明她希望能过上新的生活。故答案选C。

2.As the busiest woman in Norton, she made_________ her duty to look after all the other people’s affairs in that town.

A.this                  B. that              C.one                D.it

【答案】D

3.在like, dislike, hate, love, take, appreciate, depend on, see to(处理),insist on,help等动词后,形式宾语it后可直接跟宾语从句。此时,it表模糊概念,指代后面所叙述的内容。

You may depend on it that I shall always support you.

I hate it when people laugh at the disabled.

I will appreciate it if you can help me with my English.

How would you like         if you were watching your favorite TV program and someone came into the room and just shut it off without asking you?

A.them B. one C. those D. it

【答案】D

【解析】句意:当你正在看一个你喜欢的节目时,突然有个人进来,一声不吭地关掉电视,你会怎么想?It作形式宾语,指代If后面的句子。该句涉及到了一个疑问句,一个条件状语从句(if)和两个并列句(and)。这当时应该先把它转化为陈述句you would like______分析句子结构知道like之后缺少一个宾语,需要一个宾格代词充当,所以答案选it。

考向五it的重要句型 

1.强调句

 It is/was  + 被强调部分 + that/who … 该句型是强调句型。将被强调的部分放在前面,其它部分置于that之后,被强调部分可以是主语,宾语,表语或状语,强调的主语如果是人,that可以由who换用。如果把这种句型结构划掉后,应该是一个完整无缺的句子;这也是判断强调句型与其它从句的方法。

It was about 600 years ago that the first clock with a face and an hour hand was made.

It was they that (who ) cleaned the classroom yesterday. It was in the street that I met her father.

It was yesterday that I met her in the street.

It is you that /who are wrong.

I think it was Jack said this.(其中省略了who 或that)

What is it you want me to do?(it 后省略了that)

It is not until + 被强调部分 + that … 该句型也是强调句型。主要用于强凋时间状语,译成汉语"直到……才……",可以说是 not … until … 的强调形式。

It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star. = Not until she took off her dark glasses did I realize she was a famous film star. = I didn’t realize she was a famous film star until she took off her dark glasses.

强调句型的两种变形形式:

一般疑问句形式:Is/ Was it … that…?

特殊疑问句形式:Who/ Whom /When/ When 等 + is/ was it that …?

1)Was it in 1979 ______ the American astronaut succeeded ______ landing on the moon?

A.when; on     B. that; on    C. when; in    D. that; in    (Key: D)

2)Was ______ that I saw last night at the concert?

A.it you    B. not you      C. you      D. that yourself    (Key: A)

3)Who was it that you met in the street yesterday? 昨天你在街上遇到的是谁?

Where was it that you met Jack yesterday? 你昨天是在哪里遇到杰克的?

I don’t mind her criticizing me, but is how she does it that I object to.

A.it B.that C.this D. which

【答案】A

2.It +be的适当形式+时间+ when-clause

这个句型中,it指时间,而且表示时间的词语前没有介词(时间一般为具体时间)。主句中的谓语动词和从句中的谓语动词在时态上一般是一致的,主句是will be,when从句用一般现在时代替一般将来时。常译为"当……的时候,是……"例如:

It was already 8o’clock when we got home.

It will be midnight when they get there.

It was five o’clock in the afternoon _____ they climbed up to the top of the mountain.

It was at five o’clock in the afternoon _____ they climbed up to the top of the mountain.

A.A.since    B.when     C. that    D. until

3.It +is/has been+一段时间+ since-clause

这个句型表示从since从句谓语动作发生以后到现在或过去所经过的一段时间,意为"自从……以来已多久了"since 从句后用一般过去时,例如:

It is/has been three years since his father passed away.他父亲去逝已经有三年了。

It is/has been fifteen years since she left Shanghai.她离开上海已经15年了

4.①It is time ( about time ,high time ) that … 该句型中that 后的从句应该用虚拟语气,常用一般过去时态表示虚拟.

It is time that children went to bed.

It is time you bought a new car.

It is (high ) time you made up your mind.

②It is the first ( second … ) time that … 该句型要和上一个句型区别开来,该句型中的 that 从句不用虚拟语气,而用完成时态,。至于用什么完成时态,由主句的谓语动词的时态决定。如果是一般现在时,后面从句用现在完成时态;如果是一般过去时,后面从句则用过去完成时态,该结构中 that 可以省去;it有时用 this 替换.常译为"是第一(二)……次……"

It is the first time I have been here. = This is the first time I have been here.

It was the fifth time(that)I had paid a friendly visit to Africa.

5.It +be的适当形式+一段时间+before-clause

这个句型中的时间一般为表示一段时间的词语(如:long,years,months,weeks,days , hours,minutes),主句中的谓语动词用肯定式,意为"过多长时间才……"。主句的谓语动词是否定式时,意为没过多长时间就……主句的时态可用过去时was或将来时 will be;用was时,before从句的动词用一般过去时;用will be时,before从句常用一般现在时。例如:

It was not long before she learned those poems by heart .她没过多久就背会了那些诗歌。

It was long before the police arrived.过了很久警察才来。

It will be hours before he makes a decision.要过好几个小时他才会作出决定。

It will not be hours before we meet again.要不了几个小时我们还会再见面的。

6.It looks ( seems ) as if …该句型中it无意义, as if 引导一个状语从句。常译为"看起来好象……"如果与事实不相符合,则用虚拟语气。

It looks as if he is ill.(真的病了)

It looks as if he were ill. (没有生病)

It seemed as if he were dying.

题组一 能力过关

I.单项填空

1.Young people should be independent, and don’t take _________for granted that you can depend on your parents when in trouble.

A.one B.it C. this D. that

2.He didn’t make _________clear when and where the sports meet would be held.

A.this B.it C.that D.one

3.They dislike _________when people do not look at the name cards, so remember not to just put them in your pocket without looking.

A.that B.them C.it D. you

4.We find ______easy to get along with our new teachers here.

A.that B.it C. this D.不填

5.Almost 90% of the most popular video games contain violence, and much of ______ is extremely violent.

A.which B.it C.them D. those

6.Almost 90% of the most popular video games contain violence, and much of ______ is extremely violent.

A.which B.it C.them D. those

7.The pop singer is talented and elegant. ____ is no surprise that she has so many fans around the world.

A.It B.There C. That D. What

8.We all consider _________significant that we should cancel the order immediately.

A.how B.which C. this D.it

9._________is required that every employee here be able to use a computer and speak good English.

A.Which B.What C.As D. It

10.—The weather turns out to be fine.

— We can depend on _________ that the goods will be shipped to the flooded area on time.

A.it B./ C. this D. which

II.短文改错

While I was deciding what food to buy in a store, a young man worked there asked me how I was doing. As usual, I told truth. He said, “I’ll be right back.” I thought he was another person who thought I talked too many, and politely excuse himself. I was heading out while he came back and handed to me a beautiful bunch of flowers. Tied to him was a note saying “Have a Happy New Year”. The act of this young man almost moved me to tear. It had been an extreme difficult day. My heart was hurt and an angel came to treat me for kindness.

 

题组二 体验真题

1.(2014·陕西)I’d appreciate ________ if you could let me know in advance whether or not you will come.

A.it            B. you            C. one       D. this

2.(2014·浙江) An average of just 18.75cm of rain fell last year, making ______ the driest year since California

became a state in 1850.

A.each                  B. it                 C. this                 D. one

 

 

 

 

 

 

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