高考英语考点——主谓一致

主谓一致篇

考点详解

【命题解读】

在英语句子里,谓语受主语支配,其动词必须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,这就叫主谓一致。近几年来,高考关于该内容的考查主要集中在语法形态一致、逻辑意义一致以及就近一致三个方面上。

【命题预测】

主谓一致在高考中常与名词结合在一起进行综合考查,多以语法填空和短文改错的形式出题,在完形填空中也会有所涉及,总体难度系数较低,纵观近年的高考真题,主谓一致中的固定搭配是考查的重难点。预计2019年高考仍会沿袭这一命题规律。

【复习建议】  

  1. 掌握主谓一致的三个原则:语法形态一致、逻辑意义一致和就近一致;
  2. 掌握主谓一致中的固定搭配;
  3. 掌握定语从句中的主谓一致;
  4. 掌握倒装句、强调句中的主谓一致。

高考主谓一致的知识结构

 

考向一:语法一致

语法一致:就是谓语动词和主语在单、复数形式上保持一致。

1、单数名词,不可数名词., 不定式,动名词或从句作主语时,谓语动词用单数。主语为复数时,谓语动词用复数。

☛ His father is working on the farm.

☛  Time is money.

☛  To finish all the work on time is impossible.

☛ Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.

☛ The children are in the classroom 2 hours ago.

◆由what引导的主语从句,后面的谓语动词多用单数但如果表语是复数或what从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构时,谓语动词用复数。

What I bought were 3 English books.

What I say and do are helpful to you.

 

2、由and 或..and 连接起来的合成主语后面谓语动词用复数。

Lucy and Lily are twins.

She and I are friends.

Both she and he are Young Pioneers.

◆如果and所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物时,它后面的谓语动词就用单数。

The writer and artist has come.

◆由and 连接的并列单数主语前分别有each, every, no more than a(an), many a(an)修饰时,谓语动词用单数。

Every student and every teacher was in the room.

No boy and no girl likes it.

 

3、主语后面有with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, besides, including等引起的短语时,谓语动词的单复数由主语的单复数决定。

Mr Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China.

Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground.

She, like you and Tom, is very tall.

 

4、either, neither, each, every或no+单数neither/neither/none of +复数名词,还有some, any, no, every 构成的复合不定代词作主语,谓语动词用单数。

Each of us has a new book.

Everything around us is matter.

Neither of the texts is interesting.

None of us has been to South Africa.

 

5、定语从句中,关系代词that, which, who 作主语时,谓语动词的数和先行词一致。

He is one of my students who are working hard.

He is the only one of my friends who is working hard.

 

1(2018·新课标卷I·语法填空)While running regularly can’t make you live forever, the review says it   64   (be) more effective at lengthening life   65than   walking, cycling or swimming.

【答案】is

【解析】考查主谓一致和时态。医学报告显示:跑步比散步、骑车和游泳更能有效地延长寿命。这里叙述的是一个事实,故用一般现在时,且主语是it,表示单数概念。故填is。

 

2.He is one of the most selfish men that _______ ever lived; that’s why hardly _______ making friends with him.

A.has;anyone likes B.have;does anyone like

C.has;no one likes D.have;anyone likes

【答案】D

【解析】考查主谓一致。 that 引导的定语从句修饰的是名词复数men,因此定语从句的谓语动词应用have。第一个空考查的是定语从句中谓语动词的单复数,one of+复数名词关系代词-复数动词,因此第一个空用have;后半句译为”那就是几乎没有任何人和他交朋友的原因”,hardly 表示”几乎不”,根据句意,后面应是肯定句,故排除C项; hardly 作为否定副词放在句首时,句子才使用倒装语序,因此排除B项,故选D项。

 

 

6、集体名词family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience等,指整体时,用单数;指集体的成员时,用复数。

His family is a happy one.

The whole family  are watching TV.

The population of China is 1400 million.(人口)

One third of the population here are workers.(人)

◆people, cattle, police作主语时,谓语动词用复数。

 

7、由 a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of +名词,或者是分数/百分数+名词构成的短语作主语,谓语动词的数由名词的单复数决定。

The rest of the lecture is wonderful.

A lot of time is wasted.

A lot of people take part in the meeting.

2/3 water is drunk by him.

2/3 students are absent.

 

8、倒装句中,谓语的数与其后的主语一致。

On the wall are many pictures.

Such is the result.

Such are the facts.

 

It is important to remember that success ________ a sum of small efforts made each day and often ________ years of achieve.

A.is; takes    B. are; takes     C. are; take     D. is; take

【答案】A

【解析】主谓致指”人称”和”数”方面的一致关系。根据分析,第一空的谓语要填一 个单数,因为此宾语从句: …that success ___a sum ….of day的主语是 success,一个 单数名词,故谓语要用is;后面的句子:often___ years to achieve的主语也是success,故第二空的谓语也是一个单数形式。句意:成功是将每天一小点努力积累起来,是需要多年的努力去达到,记住这些很重要。

 

考向二:意义一致原则

1、表示时间、度量、长度、价值等的复数名词作主语,因为其在概念上是一个整体,谓语动词用单数。

Twenty minutes is enough for the work.

One hundred dollars is stolen from the ATM.

2、如果是书名,片名,格言,剧名,报名,国名等的复数形式作主语,谓语动词用单数。

The Arabian Nights is an interesting story book.

one and a half +复数n.,谓语动词用单数。

One and a half apples is left on the table.

3、算是中表示数目通常用单数(加减乘除)

 

4、表示的以-ics结尾的名词作主语,用单数。

Physics is an important subject in middle schools.

Mathematics is the study of numbers.

Politics, economics, athletics等。

5、复数形式的单复数同形的名词作主语,意义一致。

The glass works was built up in 1980.

These glass works are near the railway station.

6、由两部分组成的名词,trousers, glasses, shorts, scissors等作主语时,谓语动词用复数。apair of 等量词时,视情况而定。

7、The + 表示一类人,作主语时用复数。

The young are usually very active.

The old are lonely.

 

考向三:就近一致原则

就近一致:在英语句子中,有时谓语动词的人称和数与最近的主语保持一致。

(1)当两个主语由either … or, neither … nor,whether … or …,not only …but also连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语一致。

Neither his parents nor I am able to persuade him to change his mind.

他的父母和我都不能说服他改变注意。

(2)there be句型的be动词单复数取决于其后的主语。如果其后是由and连接的两个主语,则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致。

There are two pens,a book and three pencils on the desk. 书桌上有两支钢笔,一本书和三支铅笔。

There is a book,two pens and three pencils on the desk.  书桌上有一本书,两支钢笔和三支铅笔。

(3)在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。

Here is a map and a handbook for you. 这是一张你的地图和一本手册。

Such are the facts. 事实就是如此。

(4)就远原则:谓语动词与前面主语一致。

主语后面接连接性短语时,这种结构并不影响主语和谓语的关系,即谓语动词的数与主语的数保持一致。此类连接性短语有as well as,as much as,along with,with,like,rather than, together with,but,except,besides,including,in addition to等。

your sister as well as your parents is very kind to me.你姐姐和你父母一样,对我很好。

she,like you and betty,is very clever.像你和betty一样,她也很聪明。

 

The father as well as his three children ___________ skating on the frozen river every Sunday afternoon in winter.

A.is going     B.go    C.goes    D.are going

【答案】C

【解析】考查主谓一致和时态。句意:在冬天的每个星期天下午,这位父亲和他的三个孩子都去结冰的河面上滑冰。当 as well as 连接两个名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词的数应与as well as前面的名词或代词保持一致。本题的谓语动词应与The father保持一致,用单数形式;由时间状语 every Sunday afternoon可知,本句应用一般现在时。故选C项。

 

"名词+介词短语"作主语

名词或代词后接as well as,with,along with,together with,except,but等短语作主语时,谓语动词的形式应和介词短语前的名词或代词的人称和数保持一致。

She as well as other students likes playing computer games. 她和其他学生都喜欢玩电脑游戏。

He with his parents is working in the fields. 他正和他的父母在地里干活。

Nobody but you and me knows it. 除了你和我,没人知道。

 

考向四:不定代词作主语

1、当作主语的名词前有each,neither,either,every修饰或each,neither,either作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

☛Each student has a book. 每一个学生都有一本书。

☛Either answer is correct. 两个答案都是正确的。

☛Neither parent is with him. 他的父母都没有和他在一起。

☛Every minute is important to us. 每一分钟对大家都很重要。

2、当复合不定代词someone,anyone,somebody,anybody,nobody,everybody,something,anything,nothing,

everything等作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

☛Somebody is waiting for you outside. 有人在外面等你。

☛Is everybody here today? 今天大家都到了吗?

☛Something is wrong with my watch. 我的手表出故障了。

☛Nobody was away yesterday. 昨天没有人离开。

 

All we need _________ a small piece of land where we can plant various kinds of fruit

trees throughout the growing seasons of the year.

A.are   B.was    C. is    D. were

【答案】C

【解析】考查主谓致及时态用法。 句中的主语为代词ll,代指的是物, 故谓语动词用单数形式。 再根据从句中的can可以判断用般现在时。句意:我们所需要的是小块土地, 在整个年的生长季节, 我们能够种各种不同的水果树。故C正确。

 

考向五 特殊名词作主语

1、国名、人名、书名、报刊名、组织机构等专有名词作主语时,即使其形式上是复数,谓语动词也要用单数。

☛The United States lies to the east of China. 美国在中国的东方。(国名)

☛Engels was good at learning foreign languages. 恩格斯擅长学外语。(人名)

2、"the+形容词"作主语时,表示某类人,谓语动词用复数。

☛The sick are taken good care of. 病人得到很好的照顾。

☛The old are supposed to be spoken to politely. 跟老人讲话要有礼貌。

3、以-s结尾的名词,如maths,physics,politics等和以-s结尾的抽象名词,如news,plastics等作主语时,谓语动词要用单数。

☛Physics is very difficult for me to learn. 物理对我来讲很难学。

☛The news was very exciting. 这条新闻十分激动人心。

4、单复数形式相同的名词,如Chinese,Japanese,sheep,deer等作主语时,谓语动词的单复数由名词前的修饰语来确定。

☛A Chinese wants to see you. 一个中国人想见你。

☛Ten sheep are eating grass there. 那边有10只绵羊在吃草。

【注意】Chinese,Japanese,English等前加the表示一国人,作主语时,谓语动词用复数。

The Chinese speak Chinese. 中国人说汉语。

 

考向六 表数量概念的词或短语作主语

1、表示时间、金钱、距离、重量等的复数名词作主语时,通常看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数。

☛Ten years has passed quickly. 10年很快就过去了。

☛Ten dollars is enough. 10美元就够了。

☛100 kilometers is a long way. 100千米是一段很长的路。

2、加减乘除运算中的谓语动词用单数,其中加法与乘法也可用复数。

☛Two and two is/are four. 2加2等于4。

☛Six times one is/are six. 6乘以1等于6。

3、"many a/more than one+单数名词"作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

☛There is more than one answer. 有不止一个答案。

☛Many a student has passed the exam. 许多学生通过了考试。

4、"one and a half+复数名词"作主语时,谓语用单数。

☛One and a half days is all I can spare. 一天半是我所能支配的全部时间。

☛One and a half pears is left on the plate. 一个半梨被留在盘子里。

 

5、the rest of… 短语作主语时,如果of后接复数名词,谓语用复数;如果of后接不可数名词,谓语用单数。

☛The rest of the bikes are on sale. 余下的自行车降价出售。

☛The rest of the bread is gone. 剩余的面包不见了。

6、"none of+复数名词"作主语时,谓语动词既可以用单数也可以用复数。

☛None of the dogs was/were there. 那儿没有狗。

7、"a number of+名词复数"表示"许多/大量的……",其后的谓语动词用复数;"the number of+名词复数"表示"……的数量",其中心词为number,故谓语动词用单数。

☛A number of farmers are standing over there. 许多农民站在那边。

☛The number of the students in this school has reached over 2,000. 这所学校的学生数量已达到2 000多人。

8、"a lot of/lots of/plenty of+名词"作主语,谓语动词由of后的名词来确定。如果of后是不可数名词,谓语动词用单数;如果of后是复数名词,谓语动词用复数。

☛A lot of time is needed. 需要大量的时间。

☛Plenty of workers are working. 许多工人在工作。

 

The university estimates that living expenses for international students ________ around $8,450 a year, which ________ a burden for some of them.

A.are;is   B. are;are   C. is;are      D. is;is

【答案】A

【解析】考查主谓一致。句意:那所大学估计,对国际学生来说,一年的生活开销大约是8450美元,这对他们中某些学生来说是一个负担。第一空的主语是living expenses,是复数,因此谓语动词用复数;第二空的主语是which,指代的是前面整个句子,因此谓语动词用单数。

 

【辨析】

【巧学妙记】

 

基础过关

Ⅰ.用所给词的适当形式填空

1.Have an aim in life or your ________ (energy) will all be wasted.

2.—How can I take the medicine,sir?

—Just follow the ________ (direct) on the bottle.

3.________ (looker-on) see more than players.

4.The glutton has two ________ (stomach) to eat but no stomach for work.

5.The fisher who draws in his net too soon won’t have any ________ (fish) to sell.

6.More than 300 ________ (coach) have been invited to the meeting.

7.They took some ________ (photo) when they visited China.

8.Mr. Smith,together with his wife and daughters,________ (be) going to visit Beijing next year.

9.Either you or one of your students ________ (be) to attend the meeting that is due tomorrow.

10.Every man and every woman ________ (have) a good reason to be proud of the work done by their fathers. They all think what their fathers do are meaningful.

 

能力提升

I. 单项填空

1.So far as I know, a number of the students in our school ___________ from the suburb and the number of them ___________ 500.

A.come;is B.comes;are C. comes;is D. come;are

2.The teacher along with her students ___________ the Palace Museum when we came across her.

A.were visiting B.was visiting

C.has visited D.have visited

3.The teacher, ___________ several students, ___________ discussing the problem.

A.together with;is B.as well as;are

C.and;is D.along with;are

4.Not only his parents but also his elder brother ___________ to the Summer Palace. They haven’t been back yet.

A.have been B.have gone

C.has been D.has gone

5.About___________ of his spare time___________ spent in reading.

A.third-fifths;are B.three-fifths;is

C.three-fives;are D.three-fifth;is

 

6.Jane is the only one of the students who___________ a little Chinese and is one of my friends who ___________ studying in China now.

A.know;have B.knows;has

C.knows;are D.know;is

7.—The room is in a mess again!

—Sorry. It is ___________ who ___________.

A.me;is to blame B.I;is to be blamed

C.me;am to be blamed D.I;am to blame

8.Do you know the man___________ the little girl is turning to for help? He is one of the teachers who ___________ in our school.

A.who;is working B.whom;are working

C.whom;works D.which;works

10.When and where we’ll hold the meeting ___________ not been decided yet.

A.has B.is C. have D. are

11.With more forests being destroyed, huge quantities of good earth___________ each year.

A.is washing away B.is being washed away

C.are washing away D.are being washed away

 

II. 语法填空

Do you like traveling? Would you like to tell me if you  1 (offer) the opportunity to visit a new country and stay with a family?  2 the idea of taking a language exchange trip to a different country can be  3 (frighten) at first, it offers a great opportunity to improve your foreign language. You also have the chance to experience the life in  4 new and exciting place. Living with a local family is often the  5 (good) way to understand a different culture. Staying in a hotel with other tourists is different. If you choose to live with a family, you will be able to practice your foreign language all day. Besides, the family will be friendly and make you  6 (feel) at home. You will know all the best  7 (place) in that country. Perhaps the most important reason to take part in a language exchange program  8 (be) that even when you are back to your country, being able to chat with them over the Internet is a great way to keep  9 your foreign language.  10 (hope), the above will help you to put aside your worries and start your trip.

 

体验真题

1.(2017·江苏)The publication of Great Expectations, which ____________ both widely reviewed and highly praised, strengthened Dickens, status as a leading novelist.

A.is        B. are        C. was      D. were

2. (2017天津)Nowadays, cycling, along with jogging and swimming, ___________ as one of the best all-round forms of exercise.

A.regard     B. is regarded

C.are regarded     D. regards

3.(2013·福建)The famous musician, as well as his students, ________ to perform at the opening ceremony of the 2012 Taipei Flower Expo.

A.were invited   B. was invited

C.have been invited   D. has been invited

4.(2013·江苏)Generally,students’ inner motivation with high expectations from others ________ essential to their development.

A.is      B. are      C. was    D. were

 

基础过关

Ⅰ.用所给词的适当形式填空

1.energies  2.directions  3.Lookers-on  4.stomachs  5.fish

6.coaches  7.photos  8.is  9.is   10.has

能力提升

I. 单项填空

1.A  【解析】考查主谓一致。第一空的主语是"a number of the students in our school",指"许多学生",谓语用复数形式;第二空的主语是"the number of them",指"学生的数量",谓语用单数形式。故选A。

2. B 【解析】考查主谓致和时态。 句意:当我们遇见那位老 师的时候,她正在和她的学生 们参观故宫。名
词+介词短语作主语时,谓语动词要和介词前面的名词保持一致,即遵循”就远原则”。该题中,谓
语动词要和the teacher保持一致。 该句时间状语为”when we came across her”,表示过去的时间,且根据句意可知,该空表示我们遇见老师时老师正在做的事情,要用过去进行时态。故选B.

3.A  【解析】考查主谓一致。句意:这个老师和几个学生正在讨论这个问题。together with"与……一起";as well as"也,和";and"和";along with"与……一道"都符合语境;主句的主语是the teacher,together with several students修饰主语,因此主语是第三人称单数,所以第二空用谓语用is。综上所述,故选A。

4.D  【解析】句意:不仅他的父母而且他的哥哥也去了颐和园,他们还没有回来。not only… but (also)…连接的并列成分作主语时,谓语动词与but (also)后的成分在人称和数上保持一致;再结合语境"They haven’t been back yet."可知D项切题。

5.B  【解析】考查分数和主谓一致的用法。句意:他大约花费五分之三的空闲时间在看书上。表达分数时,分子应用基数词,分母应用序数词,当分子大于一时,序数词后面加-s;又因主语是不可数名词,所以谓语动词用单数。故选B。

6.C  【解析】考查主谓一致的用法。在第一个who引导的这个定语从句中,先行词是the only one,所以从句中的谓语动词用单数;而在第二个who引导的定语从句中,先行词是my friends,所以从句的谓语动词应用复数。故选C。

7.D  【解析】考查主谓一致。本句是强调句,强调的是主语I,所以系动词用am;be to blame是固定搭配,指"该受责备,应承担责任"。故选D。

8.B  【解析】考查定语从句和主谓一致。定语从句中turn to后缺少宾语,且指代先行词the man,故用that或whom;第二空对应的主语who替代复先行词the teachers,故该动词应用复数,选B项。

9.A  【解析】考查时态和主谓一致。句意:何时何地举行会议现在还没有决定。本句中,两个特殊疑问词when和where指的是同一件事情,谓语动词用单数,根据yet判断本句为现在完成时,故A项正确。

10.D 【解析】考查主谓一致和被动语态。句意:随着更多的森林正在被破坏,每年有大量的好泥土正在被冲走。谓语动词应根据quantity的单复数来定,本句中quantity为复数,因此谓语动词也用复数形式,故排除A项和B项;又因为earth和wash away之间为被动关系,应用被动语态,故选D项。

 

II. 语法填空

【文章大意】本文是一篇议论文,论述了如果你想学好一门外语或是体验某一个国家的风土人情,语言交流之旅将是你的不二选择的原因。用英语进行交流是考生必备的素养,体现了高考注重培养中学生跨文化交际的能力。

1.have been offered

【解析】考查动词的时态和语态。句意:你能不能告诉我你是否曾经有机会去过一个新的国家并和那里的一一个家庭居住在一起?分析句子结构可知,主语you和谓语动词offe之间为动宾关系,因此用被动语态;又根据所给语境可知,提供机会发生在过去,并对现在产生一定的影响,故应用现在完成时。

2.Although/Though

【解析】考查连词。根据语境可知,此处表示虽然去一个不同的国家参加语言交流项目这一想法起初听起来有点吓人,但是这个项目可以给你提供很好的提高外语水平的机会。前后句为转折关系,因此要用Although/Though。

3.frightening

【解析】考查动词-ing形式或动词-ed形式。此处表示去一个不同的国家参加语言交流项目这一想法起初听

起来有点令人害怕。动词frighten的形容词形式有两个:frightened和frightening。前者表示”感到害怕的”,后者表示”令人害怕的”。此处用来修饰主语the idea,因此应该用形容词frightening。

4.a

【解析】考查冠词。句意:你还有机会体验在一个新的、令人激动的地方的生活。根据语境可知,句中place表示泛指意义,故用不定冠词。

5.best

【解析】考查形容词最高级。根据语境可知,此处表示和当地人住在一起通常是学习他们的文化的最好的方式。故此处应用good的最高级形式best。

6.feel

【解析】考查非谓语动词。句中动词make后可接宾补,构成”make+宾语+宾补”结构。注意make后的宾补为不定式时,应省略不定式符号to。

7.places

【解析】考查名词单复数。句意:你将了解那个国家所有最好的地方。分析句子结构并结合句中的all可知,此处应用名词复数形式。*网

8.is

【解析】考查考主谓一致。分析句子结构可知本空应填谓语动词,又因为主语为reason,因此应该用单数形式。

9.up

【解析】考查动词固定搭配。此处表示当你回到你的祖国,能够和他们在互联网上聊天是保持你的外语水平的很好的方式。动词词组keep up意为使某事物保持(在同一水平,通常指高水平)”。

10.Hopefully

【解析】考查副词。句意:希望以上所述能够帮助你放下你的顾虑,开始你的旅程。本空用来修饰整个句子,因此应该用副词形式。又因为本空在句首,所以单词首字母应大写。

体验真题

1. C  【解析】考查主谓一致。本句是包含定语从句的复合句,先行词是Great Expectations是书名,看作单数,所以定语从句的谓语也要使用单数形式;根据"strengthened"可知,"被广泛阅读和得到高度评价"发生在过去,故选C。

2. B  【解析】句意:现在骑自行车、慢跑和游泳被认为是最全面的锻炼方式之一。根据动词短语..as…(把……看做……)和句意确定应该用被动语态,排除A和D;由介词短语along with连接的三个名词作主语,谓语动词应该就前一致,即用单数,排除C。故选B。

3.B 【解析】考查主谓一致。as well as, together with, like等介词或介词短语连接并列主语时, 谓语动词应与介词或介词短语之前的主语保持一致。 此句复合介词前的主语是musician, 故可先排除B和C, 句中有明确的过去时间,动词应用一般过去时,所以答案为B。

4.A 【解析】考查主谓一致。句意为:通常情况,对别人期望很高的学生的内在动机对他们的发展是必要的。主语students inner motivation表示单数意义,所以谓语动词用单数,并且叙述的是现在的状态,所以用一般现在时,故选A项时。王语students inner motivation表示单数意义,所以谓语动词用单数,并且叙述的是现在的状态,所以用一般现在时,故选A项。

 

高考英语

高考英语考点归纳——名词

2019-11-25 17:31:52

高考英语

高考英语考点——冠词

2019-11-28 11:15:00

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