高考英语考点——名词性从句

考点解读

【命题解读】

名词性从句是高考的热点,对于名词性从句考纲要求掌握以下内容:掌握主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句的基本用法,了解同位语从句的基本用法。要求考生在复习备考中应该掌握名词性从句的基本用法;一些易混引导词的辨析;句子的语序、否定前移;名词性从句和定语从句、状语从句的辨析等。

【命题预测】

预计2018年高考对名词性从句的考查仍然不会单纯地考查其语法结构,而是将其融入一定的语境中来考查考生的实际综合运用能力。

【复习建议】

  1. 掌握宾语从句的用法;
  2. 了解同位语从句的用法;
  3. 掌握表语从句的用法;
  4. 掌握主语从句的用法;
  5. 如何正确选择引导词。

考向一 名词性从句连接词的用法

名词性从句的连接词有从属连词that/whether/if,

连接代词what/who/which/whose/whatever/whoever/whomever/whichever,

连接副词where/when/why/how/wherever/whenever。

1.that的用法。

(1)主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句中用that但不能省略。

☞That they are good at English is known to us all.

☞The problem is that we don’t have enough money.

☞The report that there will be a severe storm in the northern area is false.

(2)一般情况下,宾语从句中的引导词that可省略,但在以下几种情况中that一般不省略:

①当that从句和主句谓语动词之间有插入语时;

②有多个that引导的从句时,第一个that可以省略,而其他的that常不可省略;

③介词except,but,besides,in等后跟that引导的宾语从句时;

④当when,who,what,where,why,how等引导的从句与that引导的从句作主句谓语动词的并列宾语时。

☞He judged that,because he was a child,he did not understand wine.

☞The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do.

☞Everyone knew what happened and that she was worried.

(3)that和what的区别。

that 引导名词性从句时,在主从句中不担当任何句子成分,也没有任何含义;而what引导名词性从句时,在主从句中都要充当一定的句子成分,what可以分解成定语从句中的"先行词+关系代词",即常说的"先行词+that"。

☞It’s a shame that he has made such a mistake.

☞I will do what I can (do) to help him.

(4)同位语从句与定语从句中that的区别。

同位语从句中的连接词that只起连接作用,在从句中不担当任何句子成分;而定语从句中的关系代词that在句中作宾语或主语,与先行词有修饰关系。如果句子

是同位语从句,就应用连接词that而不能用which。同位语从句一般放在表具体含义的名词后解释说明名词的含义或内容,如以下名词:news,fact,suggestion,truth,plan,belief,doubt,possibility,idea等,而定语从句只是对先行词的限定和修饰。

☞They expressed the hope that they would come to visit China again.(同位语从句)

☞The hope they expressed is that they would come to visit China again.(定语从句)

2.whether和if的用法。

☞ (1)whether和if在宾语从句中可以互换,但是作介词宾语时连接词一般用whether。

It all depends on whether they will come back.

(2)后面直接跟or not 时用whether。

☞I didn’t know whether or not he had arrived in Wuhan.

(3)主语从句、表语从句中只能用whether。

☞Whether the meeting will be put off has not been decided yet.

☞The question is whether they have so much money.

(4)whether可以引导同位语从句,用以说明前面的名词的内容,if则不能。

☞We ought to discuss carefully the question whether we can do it or not.

(5)whether常与or连用表示一种选择,if不能这样用;whether也可与动词不定式连用但if不能。

☞The question of whether they are male or female is not important.

☞I have not decided whether to go or not.

(6)间接宾语位于句首时或者间接宾语提前时用whether不用if。

☞Thank you,but whether I’ll be free I’m not sure at the moment.

(7)whether可引导一个让步状语从句表示"不管"、"无论",而if不能。*网

☞Whether he comes or not,we will begin our party on time.

3.疑问词+ever和no matter+疑问词的区别。

(1)疑问词+ever可引导名词性从句,在主从句中要充当一定的成分。

☞Whoever breaks the rule must be punished.

☞You can choose whatever you like in the shop.

(2)疑问词+ever还可引导让步状语从句。

☞Whoever breaks the rule,he must be punished.

☞Whatever you do,you must do it well.

(3)no matter+疑问词只能引导让步状语从句。

☞No matter what you do,you must put your heart into it.

☞No matter who comes late,he must be punished.

4.when和where引导的同位语从句与定语从句的区别。

when 和where前面的名词若是表示时间、地点的名词,则when和where引导的是定语从句,否则则为同位语从句。

☞They put forward the question where they could get the money.(同位语从句)

☞This is the place where the accident happened.(定语从句)

5.名词性从句中that不宜省略的几种情况

宾语从句或表语从句中that有时可以省略,但在以下情况时,that不宜省略。

(1)当动词后带有两个并列的宾语从句时,引入第二个从句的连词that不可省略。如:

The teacher told the students (that) they should hand in their homework the next day and that the homework must be signed names by their parents.

老师告诉学生他们要在第二天交上作业,并且作业必须由家长签名。

(2)当that前面有插入语时,that不宜省略。如:

Little Alice didn’t know, I’m sure, that her sister was going to America.

我确信,小艾丽斯不知道她的姐姐很快就要去美国了。

(3)省略答语中,that宾语从句单独出现时,that不可省略。如:

—What did he say? 他说了什么

—That he would visit the Great Wall. (他说)他将会参观长城。

(4)当主句的状语部分位于that 宾语从句之前时,that不宜省略。如:

Jane realized at once that she must do with it herself. 珍立刻意识到她必须亲自处理那件事。(如省略that,at once也可能修饰从句,是表示"立刻意识到……",还是表示"立刻去处理……",较为含糊)

(5) 当that 宾语从句中的状语部分位于从句的前部时,that不宜省略。如:

☞Tom promised that if he could earn as much as 500 dollars in this month, he would buy a computer for his brother. 汤姆许下诺言,如果他在这个月里能够赚到500美元,他就给他的弟弟买台电脑。

(6)当that 宾语从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时,that一般不宜省略。如:

☞I will never tell anyone that you have ever been there.

我绝对不会告诉别人你曾经去过那儿。

(7)当为了强调而把that引导的主语从句位于句首时,that不可省略。如:

That they would take the risk was very clear. 他们将要冒这个险是很清楚的了。

(8)当主句中的谓语动词是固定词组时,其宾语that从句中的 that 不宜省略。如:

☞Mary has made up her mind that she will study hard for the scholarship, so she can have the chance to go abroad for further study.

玛丽下定决心努力学习以获得奖学金资格,这样她就有机会出国深造了。

(9)当that 宾语从句前有 it作其形式宾语时,that不可省略。如:

We think it important that college students should master at least one foreign language.

我们认为大学生至少掌握一门外语是很重要的。

(10)当引导同位语从句时,that一般不可省略,尤其当that与先行词处于分割情况时。如:

☞He heard the news that his team had won.

他听到了他的队获胜的消息。

☞There is a feeling in me that they are cheating me.

我有一种感觉他们在骗我。

(11)当that 宾语从句的主语是非谓语动词或是主语从句时,that不可省略。如:

The doctor said that taking exercise was the best way of losing weight.

医生说运动是最好的减肥方式。

考向二 主语从句 

1.主语从句在复合句中充当主语,大多数主语从句都可以用it作形式主语而把主语从句置于句尾。

2.that引导主语从句时可用it作形式主语,that不可省;what引导的主语从句表示"……的东西"时,一般不用it作形式主语;whatever,whoever,whichever一般也不用it作形式主语。

☞That she will succeed is certain.

☞It is certain that she will succeed.

注意:(1)在"It is necessary/important/strange/natural…+that从句"结构中,从句谓语常用"(should+)动词原形"形式。

【拓展延伸】主语从句的引导词

【特别注意】当作主语的句子太长时,为保持句子平衡,常用it作形式主语,而将真正的主语置后。if"是否",不可直接引导主语从句(用it作形式主语时可以) 。

3.主语从句的特殊用法

(1)主语从句与定语从句的转换

☞What is needed has been bought.

☞All that is needed has been bought.

所有需要的都被买了。

(2)几个特殊句型之间的转换

☞It is known to all that China has joined the WTO.

As is known to all, China has joined the WTO.

What is known to all is that China has joined the WTO.

众所周知,中国已加入WTO。

1.(2018·天津卷·单项填空)The gold medal will be awarded ___________to wins the first place in the bicycle race.

A.whomeverB. wherever

C.whoeverD. whatever

【参考答案】C

2.(2017·北京卷·单项填空) Every year, ________ makes the most beautiful kite will win a prize in the Kite Festival.

A. whatever      B. whoever

C. whomever     D. whichever

【参考答案】B

【答案解析】考查主语从句。分析句子结构可知,________ makes the most beautiful kite作主语,且所填词指人,既作从句的主语又作主句的主语,所以选 whoever(whomever不能作主语)。句意:每年, 在风筝节上风筝做得最漂亮的人都会赢得奖品。

3.(2016·江苏卷·单项填空)It is often the case ____________ anything is possible for those who hang on to hope.

A.why B.what C. as D. that

【参考答案】D

考向三宾语从句

【难点梳理】

引导宾语从句的连接词主要有:

连接词:that,whether,if等

连接代词:what,who,whose,whatever,whichever,whoever等

连接副词:when,where,why,how等

1.连接词that,whether,if引导

I think (that) you should turn to the teacher for help. 我认为你应该向老师寻求帮助。

I don’t know if/whether he still lives here after so many years. 我不知道这么多年后他是否还住在这儿。

2.连接代词what,who,whose,whatever,whichever,whoever等引导

She asked me whose handwriting was the best in the class. 她问我班上谁的书法最好。

I’ll just say whatever comes into my mind. 我想到什么就说什么。

3.连接副词when,where,why,how等引导

Do you know when the ancient Olympic Games began? 你知道古代的奥运会是什么时间开始的吗?

I’ve been thinking about how we can make the newspaper more interesting. 我一直在考虑如何使我们的报纸更用趣。

4.宾语从句的语序

在宾语从句中要用陈述句语序。

He asked me when we could set out the next day. 他问我第二天什么时候可以出发。

Did you find out where she lost her car? 你查出她在哪里丢的车了吗?

5.宾语从句的时态

(1)当主句的谓语动词是一般现在时时,其宾语从句的时态可以是任何适当的时态。

She says (that) she works from Monday to Friday. 她说她周一至周五上班。(从句是一般现在时)

she says (that) she will leave a message on his desk. 她说她要在他桌子上留个便条。(从句是一般将来时)

She says (that) she has never been to Mount Emei. 她说她从来没有去过峨眉山。(从句是现在完成时)

(2)当主句的谓语动词是一般过去时时,其宾语从句的时态一般要用适当的过去时态。

He said there were no classes yesterday afternoon. 他说昨天下午没有课。(从句是一般过去时)

He said that he was going to take care of the baby. 他说他会去照看这个婴儿。(从句是过去将来时)

He said that they were having a meeting at that time. 他说他们那时正在开会。(从句是过去进行时)

(3)当宾语从句是表达客观真理和规律的句子时,其时态仍旧用一般现在时。

The teacher told us that nothing is difficult if we put our hearts into it. 老师告诉我们世上无难事,只怕有心人。

He said that light travels much faster than sound. 他说光比声音传播得快。

注意:在使用宾语从句时需要注意下面几点:

①动词find,feel,think,consider,make,believe,guess,suppose,assume等后有宾语补足语时,则需要用it作形式宾语,而将that宾语从句后置。

I think it necessary that we take plenty of boiled water every day. 我认为每天多喝开水是有必要的。

I have made it a rule that I keep diaries. 我每天写日记成了惯例。

②hate,like,take,owe,have,take for granted等表示"喜欢;痛恨;认为"的动词或动词短语和see to表示"注意,留意"后有宾语补足语时,需要用it作形式宾语而将宾语从句后置。

I hate it when they talk with their mouth full of food. 我讨厌他们满嘴食物说话。

When you start the engine, you must see to it that the car is in neutral. 启动发动机时,一定要使汽车的离合器处于空档位置。

③介词后的宾语从句。

She is always thinking of how she can do more for others. 她总想着如何才能为别人做得更多。

We are talking about whether we admit students into our club.

我们正在讨论是否让学生加入我们的俱乐部。

④宾语从句的否定转移。将think,believe,suppose,expect,fancy,imagine等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。

I don’t think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。

I don’t believe he will come. 我相信他不会来。

【巧学妙记】

1.(2018·全国新课标卷II·短文改错)The games my parents taught me where I was a child turned out to be very useful later in my life.

【参考答案】where改为when

2.(2018·全国新课标卷III·语法填空)I’m not sure _____61_____ is more frightened, me or the female gorilla(大猩猩)that suddenly appears out of nowhere. I’m walking on a path in the forest in the Central African Republic.

【参考答案】which/who

【答案解析】考查宾语从句。句意:我不确定哪一个更害怕,我,还是突然出现的雌性大猩猩。此处为宾语从句,空格处表示选择,所以用which或者who” *网

3.(2017·天津卷·单项填空)She asked me ________ I had returned the books to the library, and I admitted that I hadn’t.

A. when       B. where

C. whether     D. what

【参考答案】C

4.(2016·全国新课标卷I·短文改错)My uncle is the owner of a restaurant close to that I live.

【参考答案】that → where

【答案解析】考查宾语从句的引导词。介词后面的宾语从句缺少状语,根据句意判断此处表示地点。故把that改为where。

考向四表语从句

引导表语从句的连接词主要有:

连接词:that,whether

连接代词:who,whom,whose,which,what,whoever whomever,whichever,whatever

连接副词:when,where,how,why

1.连接词引导

☞The reason for his absence is that he hasn’t been informed. 他缺席的原因就是他没接到通知。

☞The question remains whether they will be able to help us. 问题还是他们能否帮我们。

2.连接代词和连接副词引导

☞The problem is who will take charge of this shop. 问题是谁将接管这家店铺。

☞That is when I realized the importance of journalism. 那时我才意识到新闻工作的重要性。

注意:

(1)as/as if/as though引导的表语从句常跟在特定动词后面,如seem,appear,look,taste,sound,feel等。

☞It sounds as if someone is knocking at the door. 听上去好像有人在敲门。

☞At that time, it seemed as though I couldn’t think of the right word. 当时我似乎怎么也想不出一个恰当的字眼来。

(2)当主句的主语是reason时,表语从句一般由that引导,这种用法常见于句型The reason why… is that…

☞The reason why he came late was that he got up late. 他来得晚是因为起床晚了。

1.(2018·北京卷·单项填空) Without his support, we wouldn’t be _________ we are now.

A.how B. when     C. where     D. why

【参考答案】C

2.(2016·北京卷·单项填空) The most pleasant thing of the rainy season is ________ one can be entirely free from dust.

A.what B. that C. whether D. why

【参考答案】 B

【试题解析】 考查表语从句。句意:雨季最令人愉悦的就是人们可以完全不再受到灰尘的困扰。is后跟从句作表语,即表语从句,表语从句不缺少主语、谓语和宾语,因此用that,that只起引导作用,故选B。

考向五同位语从句

1.同位语从句跟在名词后面,进一步解释、说明该名词的具体内容。同位语从句常跟在名词idea, fact, news, hope, thought,suggestion等抽象名词之后;

2.连接词that不能省略,无意义无成分;

3.用whether而不用if引导同位语从句;

4.连接代词who(m), which, what,whose在从句中作主语、宾语、表语或定语;

5.连接副词where, when, why, how在从句作状语。

6.分割式同位语从句:同位语从句有时被别的词或短语把它和名词隔开:(谓语较短,同位语从句较长)。

☞The story goes that William Tell did kill the king with that sword.

7.若被同位语从句说明的名词是:advice, suggestion, proposal(建议), demand, request, requirement, order(命令)等表示建议、命令、要求的词时,同位语从句的谓语用”(should)+do”。

8.区别由that 引导的定语从句和同位语从句:

①定语从句中的that是代词,可在从句中作主、宾、表;同位语从句中的that是连词,无成分无意义;

②定语从句——说明先行词的性质与特征,与先行词是修饰与被修饰的关系;

同位语从句——对名词即先行词加以补充说明,是名词全部内容的体现。

③在名词和从句之间加be, 使之构成一个新句子,如果合乎逻辑,句子通顺,则是同位语从句,定语从句是不能用系表结构把先行词与从句连接起来的。

1.The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief     you are better than anyone else on the sports field.

A.how    that

C.which D. whether

【参考答案】B

2.News came from the school office ______ Wang Lin had been admitted to Peking University.

A.which           B. that

C.what             D. where

【参考答案】B

【答案解析】考查同位语从句。本题属于分割式同位语从句,谓语came较短,同位语从句较长,名词和同位语从句被from the school office 分开,that 引导同位语从句Wang Lin had been admitted to Beijing University解释news的内容,在句中起引导作用,没有具体的意思。故选B。

题组一 基础过关

 Ⅰ.用适当的连接词填空

1.(2017·新课标卷I)The homeowner called to say ________the parents had responded to the recordings..

2.(2017·新课标卷I)What I’m hoping to accomplish is ________ my generation and younger start to reconsider and understand _________ jazz is not black and write anymore.

3.(2017·新课标卷III)The Yellowstone wolf project has been a valuable experiment to help biologists decide _________ to reintroduce wolves to other parts of the country as well.

4.(2017·北京卷)What could be more fun than a gift that keeps coming through the letterbox every month?

5.He hasn’t made ________ known when he is going to get married.

6.The police went to the suspect’s house and searched for ________ they could find to prove him guilty.

7.The question ________ it is right or wrong depends on the result.

8.As the spokeswoman said,________ we should take action against them depends on what they will do.

9.—Something should be done to improve the worsening air quality.

—Yes.________ pollutes the air shall pay a high price.

10.The news ________ we are having a holiday tomorrow is not true.

Ⅱ.单句改错

1.After looking at the toy for some time,he turned around and found where his parents were missing.

2.Whoever was responsible for the accident is not yet clear.

3.We never doubt whether he is honest.

4.If she comes or not doesn’t concern me.

5.I feel it a terrible thing which my mother should have to toil so endlessly.

6.The fact is what he didn’t notice the car until too late.

7.The reason why he was late was because he didn’t catch the early bus.

8.Your brother’s health is not which it used to be.

9.Obviously there was little probability which they would succeed,but they didn’t mind.

10.The proposal has been put forward what the flight should be cancelled.

题组二 能力提升

I.单项填空

1.______________ Tom will win the computer competition remains a secret till next Monday.

A.When B.That

C.What D.Whether

2.______________ that the Chinese government plans to end its one-child policy and instead let families have two children.

A.It was reported B.What was reported

C.It has reported D.As was reported

3.It is said ______________ the picture shows a Chinese girl standing by the river under a tree, seemingly listening to a bird singing.

A.which B.as

C.what D.that

4.He asked ______________.

A.how much did the iPhone 7 cost B.how much the iPhone 7 costs

C.what was the price of the iPhone 7 D.what the price of iPhone 7 was

5.There will be a bow and arrow competition ______________ to retell ______________ the Plains Indians used to hunt for food.

A.designed;what B.designing;how

C.designing;what D.designed;how

6.People are now eager to find out ______________ the little boy survived the terrible disaster.

A.how is it that B.that it is how

C.that is it how D.how it is that

7.He was seriously ill. That is ______________ he didn’t come yesterday.

A.why B.the reason C.because D.for what

8.The reason why you get into a panic is ______________ you haven’t been well prepared for what’s going to happen.

A.that B.what C.why D.because

9._________difficult the task may be, we must finish it on time, because there is a possibility_________  we’ll be fired if we can’t.

A.Whatever; that B.However; that

C.Whatever; which D.However; as

10._________he told Tom’s parents was the news _________Tom had been admitted to a key university, _________, of course, made them feel very excited.

A.What; which; which B.That; that; which

C.What; that; which D.That; that; what

II.语篇填空

I am going to tell you an unbelievable thing __1__happened in my restaurant today.

This afternoon a poorly-dressed gentleman came into my restaurant. Nobody knew __2__he was. We wondered __3__he was so hungry. We were surprised __4__he finished two orders of food in a very limited time.We doubted __5__the man was able to pay the bill. The gentleman asked __6__we would mind waiting for just a few minutes. Then we were shocked to see__7__he took out of an envelope—a million pound bank note.

I asked Mr. Clements__8__it was genuine. Mr.Clements said it was true because two of this amount had been issued by the Bank of England this year. He thought __9__the gentleman showed them couldn’t be a fake.

__10__a gentleman with a million pound note was in rags and ate in our small restaurant was a big puzzle to all the people there. I really couldn’t describe how excited I was.

III.语法填空

Dear helpful Hannah,

I’ve got a problem with my husband, Sam. He bought a smart phone last month and took it during our holiday. He has a constant urge  1 (check) text messages. He’s so addicted to it that he checks his phone every five minutes! He checks it at  2 (appropriate) times like when we are eating in a restaurant and I am talking to him! He  3 (behave) as if any small amount of boredom can make him feel the need to check his phone, even when he knows he shouldn’t. The temptation to see  4 is connecting him is just too great. When I ask him to put down the phone, he says, “In a minute” ,  5 still checks to see if someone has posted something new on the Internet. Our life  6 (interrupt). It is clear that his dependency on the smart phone has become more than  7 everyday problem.

 8 (recent) read an article about “nomophobia”, which is a real  9 (ill) — people can’t stand the fear of having no phones! I am worried that Sam maybe suffering  10 this illness because he feels anxious if he doesn’t have his phone with him, even for a short time.

Would you please tell me what I can do to help him?

Sick and Tired Sadie

题组三体验真题

1.(2018·北京) This is _________ my father has taught me—to always face difficulties and hope for the best.

A.how B. which C. that     D. what

2.(2018·江苏) By boat is the only way to get here, which is _______ we arrived.

A.where B. when C. why D. how

3.(2017·江苏) We choose this hotel because the price for a night here is down to $20,half of ________ it used to charge.

A.that         B. which

C.what       D. how

4.(2016·北京)Your support is important to our work. ______________ you can do helps.

A.However    B. Whoever

C.Whatever D. Wherever

5.(2015·北京)I truly believe ______________ beauty comes from within.

A.that B. where

C.what D. why

6.(2016·江苏)It is often the case _________ anything is possible for those who hang on to hope.

A.why B. what C. as D. that

7. (2016·四川)_________you said at the meeting describes a bright future for the company.

A. When B. How   C. What D. That

8. (2014北京)Some people believe _________ has happened before or is happening now will repeat itself in the future.

A.whatever B. whenever.  C. wherever  D. however

9.(2016·天津) The manager put forward a suggestion _________ we should have an assistant. There is too much work to do.

A.whether        B. that           C. which        D. what

10. (2016·上海)Eventually, I decided to follow her and _________happened truly amazed me. She was taking the food to the refugee camp, in which she distributed it to children.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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