高考英语考点——介词+关系代词引导的 定语从句

考点解读

考向一 介词+关系代词引导的定语从句

"介词+关系代词"的用法

当关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时,我们通常用"介词+关系代词"引导定语从句。如果指"人",用"介词+whom";如果指"物",用"介词+which"。

"介词+关系代词"结构中介词的选用

1.一般来说,确定关系代词前的介词,可以从以下三方面入手:①先行词的意义;②从句中的动词或形容词与先行词的固定搭配;③句子的意思。

☞I’ll never forget the time during which I spent my childhood in the country.

我永远不会忘记孩童时代我在乡村度过的时光。

2.表示"整体和部分关系",介词常用of。在some,any,few,none,all,both,neither,most,each等代词或数词的前、后可以用of which/whom。

☞John invited about 40 people to his wedding,most of whom are family members.

约翰邀请了大约40人参加他的婚礼,他们当中绝大部分是家庭成员。

3.有时"介词+where"可以引导定语从句,此时要和"介词+which"引导的定语从句从意思上加以区别。

☞His head soon appeared out of the window,from where he saw nothing but trees.

他的头很快从窗口探了出来,从那里除了树木他什么也看不到。(from where相当于from out of the window,而不是from the window)

在定语从句中,含介词的短语动词不可拆开使用(短语拆开后含义发生变化),如look after, look for等。

"of which / whom"有时可以用"whose+名词"结构来改写。

当先行词为way并且定语从句中缺少状语时,通常用in which或that引导定语从句(in which或that可省略);如果定语从句中不缺少状语,则用关系代词引导(that 或which 可省略)。

1.(2017·江苏卷·单项填空) In 1963 the UN set up the World Food Programme, one of ________ purposes is to relieve worldwide starvation.

A. which            B. its

C. whose         D. whom

【参考答案】C

2.(2016 • 江苏卷·单项填空)Many young people, most _________were well-educated, headed for remote regions to chase their dreams.

A. of which of them

C.of whom D.of those

【参考答案】C

【答案解析】考查定语从句。本题定语从句的先行词是Many young people,关系代词whom指代先行词,在定语从句中作介词of的宾语。句意:很多年轻人都前往偏远地区追求它们的梦想,其中大部分人都受过良好教育。故C项正确。

考向二 定语从句与其他句型的区别

一、限制性定语从句与同位语从句的区别

关系副词引导限制性定语从句中的关系词有跟他们含义相应的先行词,而引导同位语从句时则没有与他们含义相应的先行词。

☞Sorry, I’ve forgot the day when we met for the first time.

抱歉,我记不起我们第一次见面的日子了。(定语从句,先行词the day 与when含义相应)

☞I’ve no idea when we met for the first time.

我不知道我们第一次是什么时候见面的。(同位语从句,idea与when没有任何联系)

二、定语从句与时间状语从句的区别

当定语从句的引导词与时间状语从句的连接词都是when时,定语从句修饰、限制、说明时间名词,只能放在先行词的后面;而时间状语从句说明动作发生的情况,并且可以放在主句的前面。

☞Do you know the time when the class is over? 你知道下课的时间吗?(定语从句)

☞It was already five o’clock when the class was over.

=When the class was over, it was already five o’clock.

当课结束时,已经是五点钟了。(时间状语从句)

三、定语从句与地点状语从句的区别

当定语从句的引导词与地点状语从句的连接词都是where时,定语从句修饰、限制、说明地点名词;而状语从句则说明动作发生的地点,where没有对应的地点名词或代词。

☞This is the place where we used to live a few years ago.

这就是几年前我们常居住的地方。(定语从句)

☞Let’s go where we can find a better job.

我们到我们能找到更好工作的地方去吧。(地点状语从句)

四、定语从句与强调句型的区别

定语从句对名词或代词的修饰和限制,关系词可能是that, which, as, who, but, 另一方面,句子中的It有所指;而强调句型是对某部分加强语气,强调语气的连接词只能是that, who,并且句子中的It 没有任何意义;一般比较明显,而有时就难以区别,还需要根据上下文的语境来判断。*网

It is a book that he wants.

它究竟是强调句型还是定语从句,就要从语境上来考察。如果它是用来回答What is this / that? 这样的问题,意思是:它是一本他想要的书。句子显然是定语从句。如果是用来回答What does he want? 这样的问题,那么意思是:他想要的是一本书。显然,句子是强调句型。

五、定语从句与结果状语从句的区别

定语从句中的关系词在从句中还要作某种成分,因而从句成分不完整;而结果状语从句中的连接词不作任何句子成分,因此句子成分完整。

☞It is such an interesting book as we all like.

它是我们大家都喜欢的如此有趣的书。(定语从句)

☞It is such an interesting book that we all like it.

它是一本如此有趣的书,我么大家都喜欢它。(结果状语从句)

比较:It is such an interesting book that we all like. 强调句型。意思是:我们大家都喜欢的是一本如此有趣的书。

六、定语从句与独立主格结构的区别

定语从句一般有关系词、主谓结构完整;而独立主格结构没有关系词、也没有谓语动词。

☞The book being very interesting, we all like it. 由于这本书有趣,我们大家都喜欢它。

☞The book which / that is very interesting was published last year. 这本有趣的书是去年出版的。

1.—He wrote a lot of novels, none of____________ were popular.

—It’s the same with his wife. She wrote some plays, but none of ___________ was a success.

A.these;them B. which;which

C.those;which D. which;them

【参考答案】D

2.After the war, a new school building was put up____________ there had once been a theatre.

A.that B. where

C.which D. when

3.After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town_____________ he grew up as a child.

A.which B. where

C.that D. when

【参考答案】2. B   3. B

【答案解析】定语从句中有表示地点的先行词,而地点状语从句中则没有;定语从句的关系词根据需要可用

"介词+which"来代替where,而地点状语从句则通常只能由where引导。因此第2题中无表示地点的先行词,是表示地点的状语从句,故填where,第3题中the small town是先行词,为定语从句,故填where,也可用in which替换。

题组一 基础过关

用适当的关系词填空

1.(2017·浙江) Italy, _________ has a much weaker tradition of immigration, has witnessed a sharp increase in immigration in recent years.

2.(2017·北京) If we use, to achieve our purposes, a mechanical agency with _________ operation we cannot effectively interfere(干预), we had better be quite sure that the purpose put into the machine is the purpose which we really desire.

3.(2017·北京)This is called“herd immunity”, ________ protects the people who get hurt easily, including those ________  can’t be vaccinated for medical reasons, babies too young to get vaccinated and people on ________ the vaccine doesn’t work.

4.Her performances on the stage were perfect,________ made a lot of people admire her.

5.The city was attacked by such terrible weather ________ few citizens had ever experienced before.

6.A story I read two years ago,________ name I can’t remember clearly,changed my idea about education.

7.I don’t know the reason ________ you lied to your parents,but you’d better explain.

8.________ is mentioned above,paper is first made in China.

9.A sailor ________ has experienced no storm will never become an excellent sailor.

10.I often think about the times ________ I have felt hurt and insulted by rude remarks from strangers and sometimes from acquaintances.

题组二 能力提升

I.单项填空

1.Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree ________ they can be controlled on purpose.

A.with which B.to which

C.of which D.for which

2.Gun control is a subject_________ Americans have argued for a long time.

A.of which B.with which

C.about which D.into which

3.Eric received training in computer for one year, ___________ he found a job in a big company.

A.after that B.after which

C.after it D.after this

4.True friendship is like health, the value___________is seldom known until it is lost.

A.of it B.on which

C.of whom D.of which

5.With more than 17 000 islands, _________ _only 6 000 are inhabited, Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelago (群岛).

A.on which B.for which

C.of which D.along which

6.Pointing to the house on ____________ roof grew lots of bushes, the old man told me that was ____________ I would stay.

A.its;what B.whose;what

C.whose;where D.its;where

7.Our special thanks go to thousands of volunteers, without ____________ tireless work, none of these would be possible.

A.which B.whom

C.whose D.that

8.—Have you known Jane for long?

—Not very long, ______________ we started to serve the World Expo in Milan.

A.after B.before

C.when D.since

II.语篇填空

Do you know the man __1__wrote this book?He was Jason,one of the engineers __2__came from Russia in the 1950s.He worked in the same factory __3__my father once worked. When he came to China,the first thing __4__ he did was to visit the factory __5__did research on trolleybuses and found out the reason __6__China was so backward in it.Then he spent every minute __7__he could spare to help China develop transportation.__8__is mentioned above,Jason was a foreigner __9__made great contributions to our country and was a kind man to __10__we should say thanks.

 

III. 语法填空

When you decide you’re going to live alone,you get upset. This is __1__(nature). But there’s no need to get __2__(worry). Below are some ideas __3__ can help you out.

Saving money is __4__ you need to start several months before you move out. You need to save enough money__5__(help) you survive for at least a month in the new place. The __6__(easy) of all ways is to spend less!

Search for a place to live in before__7__(move) out. Make sure that the place you choose is in a good location. Besides,you can afford__8__.If you’re going to stay in an expensive city,find a roommate so that you can share the expenses.

And if you have to live__9__your own for a long time,you’ll have to look for a part-time job. If you’re__10__student,you can work in restaurants,theaters,etc. And don’t spend a lot of money in a wasteful way! Try and save every penny of what you earn.

题组三体验真题

1.(2016 • 浙江)Scientists have advanced many theories about why human beings cry tears, none of ______ has been proved.

A.whom        B. which

C.what D. that

2.(2015·浙江) Creating an atmosphere       employees feel part of a team is a big challenge.

A.as      B.whose

C.in which          D. at which

3.(2015·重庆) He wrote many children’ s books, nearly half of_________ were published in the 1990s.

A.whom B. which

C.them        D. that

 

 

高考英语

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2019-12-25 9:47:34

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