高考英语考点——限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句

考点解读

考向一 非限制性定语从句

非限制性定语从句是对意义已经非常明确的先行词给予补充、说明,删去非限制性定语从句,主句的意思仍是概念清晰、结构完整的。非限制性定语从句的引导词有who,whom,which,whose,as,when,where等,that不可用于引导非限制性定语从句,从句之前要用逗号。

先行词指人,则用who,whose,which等;

先行词指物,要用which;

先行词表时间或者地点,并在句中作时间状语或者地点状语时要用when或者where引导。

一、使用非限制性定语从句的情况:

1.关系代词指代整个主句时,使用非限制性定语从句。

☛You did a lot for me, for which I was grateful. 你为我做了许多,对此我很感激。

☛The Diaoyu Island belongs to China, as is known to us. 众所周知,钓鱼岛属于中国。

☛A middle-aged woman killed her husband, which frightened me very much. 一个中年女子杀害了自己的丈夫,这令我十分恐惧。

2.当先行词指的是世界上独一无二的事物或人名地名等专有名词时,使用非限制性定语从句。

☛China, which is my motherland, is developing fast. 中国是我的祖国,正在快速发展。

☛Eason, who was a pop star, got married last year. 伊森去年结婚了,他是明星。

☛Last Sunday they reached Nanjing , where a conference was to be held. 他们上周日到达南京,有个会议要在那里举行。

3.当先行词指的是某人只有一个亲属(son,daughter等)时,使用非限制性定语从句。

☛He has a daughter, who is studying in London. 他有个女儿,现在正在伦敦学习。(只有一个女儿)

☛This is my teacher, who has something to tell you. 这是我的老师,他有一些事情要告诉你。

二、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别

1.形式不同

限制性定语从句主句和从句之间不用逗号隔开,口语中使用时也不停顿;而非限制性定语从句与主句之间通常有逗号隔开,口语中使用时有停顿。

2.功能不同  

限制性定语从句用于对先行词的意义进行修饰、限制和识别,如果去掉,就会造成句意不完整或概念不清;而非限制性定语从句用于对先行词起补充说明作用,如果省略,句意仍然清楚、完整。

☛People who take physical exercise live longer. 进行体育锻炼的人活得长些。(若把从句去掉句子就失去意义)

☛His daughter, who is in Boston now, is coming home next week. 他女儿现在在波士顿,下星期回来。(若把从句去掉,句子意义仍然完整)

3.翻译不同

在翻译定语从句时,一般把限制性定语从句翻译在它所修饰的先行词之前,而把非限制性定语从句与主句分开。

☛He is the man whose car was stolen. 他就是汽车被窃的那个人。

☛I’ve invited Jim, who lives in the next flat. 我邀请了吉姆,他就住在隔壁。

4.含义不同

比较下面的两个句子:

☛I have a sister who is a doctor. 我有一个医生的姐姐。(姐姐不止一个)

☛I have a sister, who is a doctor. 我有一个姐姐,她是当医生的。(只有一个姐姐)

5.先行词不同  

限制性定语从句的先行词只能是名词或代词,而非限制性定语从句的先行词则可以是名词或代词,也可以是短语或句子;另外,当先行词为专有名词或其他具有独一无二性的普通名词时,通常要用非限制性定语从句,而不用限制性定语从句。

☛Peter drove too fast, which was dangerous. 彼得开车很快,这是很危险的。(which指drive too fast)

☛He changed his mind, which made me very angry. 他改变了主意,这使我很生气。(which指整个主句)

☛Mr. Smith, who is our boss, will leave for Japan next week. 我们的老板史密斯先生下周要去日本。(先行词为专有名词,要用非限制性定语从句修饰)

☛Her father, who has a lot of money, wishes her to study abroad. 她父亲很有钱,希望她出国学习。(先行词为表独一无二意义的普通名词,要用非限制性定语从句修饰)

6.关系词不同

关系词that和why可用于限制性定语从句中,通常不用于非限制性定语从句;另外,在限制性定语从句中,关系词有时可以省略,而在非限制性定语从句中关系词一律不能省略。

1.(2018·北京卷·单项填空) She and her family bicycle to work, _________ helps them keep fit.

A.which B. who C. as     D. that

【参考答案】A

2.(2017·新课标卷I·语法填空)Like anything, it is possible to have too much of both,    70    is not good for the health.

【参考答案】 which

【答案解析】句意:很可能摄入过多的脂肪和盐,那对健康没有好处。分析可知which is not good for the health为非限制性定语从句,先行词是前面的整句话。

3.(2017·新课标卷II·短文改错)In their spare time, they are interesting(改为interested) in planting vegetables in their garden, that is on the rooftop of their house.

【参考答案】 which

【答案解析】非限制性定语从句需要用which引导,故将that改为which。

3.(2017·新课标卷III·语法填空)But Sarah,  64   has taken part in shows along with top models, wants   to prove   (prove) that she has brains as well as beauty.

【参考答案】 who

【答案解析】考查定语从句。分析句子结构可知,  64   has taken part in shows along with top models是非限制性定语从句,非限制性定语从句中缺少主语,且先行词为Sarah,指人,要用who。

4.(2016·全国新课标卷I·语法填空)But my connection with pandas goes back   64(to)  my days on a TV show in the mid-1980s,    65    I was the first Western TV reporter  66permitted (permit) to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild.

考向二 as,which引导的定语从句

一、相同点

两者引导非限制性定语从句时,可指代主句中的部分或整个句子的内容,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语,位于主句之后有时可互换。

☛The meeting was put off, as /which was exactly what we wanted. 会议被推迟了,这正是我们想要的。

☛He was a doctor, as/which I knew from his manner. 他是一名医生,我是从他的举止中知道的。

二、不同点

1.as可以放在主句前后,也可插入主句之中;而which引导的非限制性定语从句只能位于主句之后。

☛As is known to all, fish can’t live without water. 众所周知,鱼离开水无法生存。

☛Air, as we know, is gas. 正如我们所知,空气是气体。

2.在非限制性定语从句中,which后的be动词不可省;而as后的be动词可以省略。

☛She told me she won the match, which was a lie. 她告诉我们她赢得了比赛,这是一个谎言。

☛The material is elastic, as (was) shown in the figure. 这种材料是有弹性的,正如图中所示。

3.which在非限制性定语从句中作主语时可用各类动词作谓语;而as作主语时,谓语常用系动词,如be,seem,become等,一般不用其他行为动词。

☛He saw the girl, which delighted him. 他看见了那个女孩,这让他很高兴。

☛He didn’t say anything at the meeting, as/which seemed very strange. 他在会议上一言未发,这看起来非常奇怪。

4.as常用"正如"含义,常用的结构有as we know(众所周知);as often happens(正如常发生的那样);as is often the case(情况常常如此);as we all can see(正如我们看到的);be announced / expected / known / imagined / mentioned / said / shown / reported等。这些结构常放句首,偶尔也可以放句中或句末。

☛As is known to all, China is a developing country. 众所周知,中国是一个发展中国家。

☛Kate was late for school, as often happened. 凯特上学迟到了,正如常发生的那样。

5.在非限制性定语从句中,which可指代主句中的某一个单词,as不可以。

☛My brother enjoyed playing basketball, which he really plays well. 我哥哥喜欢打篮球,他打得非常好。

☛Beijing, which he was born in, is our capital. 北京,他出生的地方,是我们的首都。

6."介词+关系代词(介宾代物)"中关系代词只能用which。

The Travel Agency, with which our company has been dealing for several years, has opened for new branches. 那家与我们交易了好几年的旅行社又开了新的分店。

☛Air is a mixture of gases, of which oxygen forms 21 percent. 空气是一种气体的综合体,其中氧气占了21%。

7.从句中的谓语动词是否定形式时,常用which。

☛He can write a letter in English, which I can not. 他可以用英语写信,我不能。

☛Metal will bear beating with a hammer, which a stone will not. 金属能承受得住用锤子敲打,但是石头则不能。

8.非限制性定语从句中的关系代词代表前面主句中的宾语从句时,常用which。

☛He said he had passed the exam, which was untrue. 他说他通过了考试,这是假的。

1.The number of smokers,________is reported, has dropped by 17 percent in just one year.

A.it B.which C.what D.as

【参考答案】D

【试题解析】分析句子结构可知,空处引导非限制性定语从句,指代的是整个主句的含义,故可排除A、C两项。as引导非限制性定语从句时,表示"如同,正如",符合题干意思,故选D项。

2.(2017学年上海外国语大学附属外国语学校期中)He has made as much progress ______________ is enough for him to be admitted to Fudan University.

A.as B.that C.what D.which

【参考答案】A

题组一 过关练习

I.单项填空

1.You must learn to read people, ___________ will be necessary if you work in a team.

A.who B. thatC.which D. what

2.In ancient Egypt, green represented hope and spring, ___________ is the time of year ____________ things in nature start to grow after a long winter.

A.when;which B. what;when

C.which;when D. which;that

3.English is a language shared by several diverse cultures, ___________ uses it differently.

A.all of which B. each of which

C.all of them D. each of them

4.It is the third time that she has won the race, __________ has surprised us all.

A.that B. where

C.which D. what

5.When it comes to the majority of the latest technologies in the next 20 years, __________ has greater potential than the technology being developed in these young people’s company, __________ in my eyes will lead to a revolution.

A.nothing;which B. none;where

C.nothing;where D. none;which

6.The award-winning book was written by a teenager,______________ was, indeed, beyond all expectations.

A.as B.which

C.what D.that

7.A lot of language learning,______________ has been discovered, is happening in the first year of life, so parents should talk much to their children during that period.

A.as B.it

C.which D.this

8.______________ is known to us all, failure usually results from laziness while diligence can result in success.

A.What B.Which

C.As D.When

II.语法填空

阅读下面短文,在空白处填入 1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

The UK’s 65 plus age group is the    1    (fast) growing crowd within our population, and likely to reach one in four people    2    2040. So the number of ‘Silver surfers’ simply has to rise.

ONS statistics (统计结果) also show that almost 25% of adults aged 65 plus now use social networking sites, but with a third of this age group    3    (live) on their own. These sites are becoming    4    (increase) important for the elderly to look for ways to stay connected to society,    5    has a great positive affect on feelings of isolation(孤独) and depression.

This same age group is the most likely to live apart from others and often easier to feel    6    (lone). A released study showed that as many as 1.2 million elderly people in England    7    (experience) loneliness.

Social media such as Facebook and Skype go a long way to deal with this issue by offering instant interaction (互动) with    8    (love) ones at the click of mouse. Skype can bring grandchildren, who live on the    9    side of the planet, through the Internet into their front room and into their lives.

This age group    10    (trap) by ill health, with 60% of them suffering long-term conditions, so discovering ways to remain in good health as long as possible is a wise choice. Technology has the ability to do this.

题组二体验真题

1.(2017·天津)My eldest son, ________ work takes him all over the world, is in New York at the moment.

A.that     B. whose

C.his      D. who

2.(2016·天津)We will put off the picnic in the park until next week, ______the weather may be better.

A.that B. where

C.which D. when

3.(2015·湖南)It is a truly delightful place, ______looks the same as it must have done 100 years ago with its winding streets and pretty cottages.

A.as B. where

C.that D. which

4.(2015·天津)The boss of the company is trying to create an easy atmosphere______ his employees enjoy their work.

A.where B. which

C.when D. who

5.(2015·四川)The books on the desk, ______covers are shiny, are prizes for us.

A.which B. what

C.whose D. the

 

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