高考英语考点——关系代词引导的定语从句

考点解读

 【考点解读】

定语从句在高考的基础知识方面的考查主要体现在单选题,语法填空及短文改错中,在单项选择中主要考查定语从句的一些基本用法,如常见关系词的选择,在选择的过程中,一定要注意限制性与非限制性定语从句的区别,定语从句与名词性从句,及状语从句的引导词的区别等,有时也会与其他修饰性的句型结构之间进行误导性考查,如与强调句性等,所以重点掌握的是从高考题中总结规律,达到熟练应用。

【高考预测】

定语从句是历年高考的重点,主要考查常见关系代词和关系副词的用法,比如which/that/as/ when/where的用法及区别性的选择等,及与其他从句如名词性从句的区别等。在高考的中主要体现在语法填空,短文改错,完型填空等中,且完形填空80%每年会出一道题。

常见关系代词的基本用法

1.that

可指人或物;在定语从句中作主语,宾语,表语。指人时,相当于who或 whom;指物时,相当于which。不能引导非限制性定语从句;不可置于介词后作宾语。

2.which

指物;在定语从句中作主语,宾语。如:

The book which/that was on the desk was bought by my father.(主语)

3.who, whom, whose

(1)who: 主格, 在从句中作主语,只可指人

(2)whom: 宾格,在从句中只能作宾语; 只可指人

(3)whose: 表所属关系,在从句中作定语。译为:某人的,某物的

(4)whose + 名词 =the + n. + of which  (某物的) = he + n. + of whom  (某人的)

注意:

① 关系代词作介词宾语 (在定语从句中,介词提前时,介词后:表人用 whom;表物用 which)

② 关系代词在定语从句中用作介词宾语时, 介词可放于从句之首, 也可放于从句之末. 但以放于句首较为正式.(介词前置,必须注意不影响动词词组的含义。关系代词who 和 that 用作介词宾语时, 介词必须放在句末。)

4.as

as 引导定语从句, 在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语

(1)如为限制性的,多用于the same …as ; the same as(与……相同);such …as …(如此,这样); as many/much as(和……一样多);so/as …as(与……一样)等结构中。如:

(2)如为非限制性的,as还可以单独引导一个定语从句,代替整个主句,这种定语从句可置于句首,句中或句尾,译为"正如,这一点"。(动词常为know, see, expect, point out, etc.)

As we all know, smoking is harmful to one’s health . (as 作宾语)众所周知,吸烟有害健康。

1.(2018·新课标卷I·语法填空)Two of the authors of the review also made a study publishedin 2014   66   showed a mere five to 10 minutes a day of running reduced the risk of heart disease and early deaths from all   causes.

【参考答案】that/which

【答案解析】that或which  考查定语从句的关系词。此处a study是先行词,其在定语从句中作主语,故填that或which。

2.(2018·新课标卷II·语法填空)The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture finds that between 2005—when the government starteda soil-testing program ___69___ gives specific fertilizer recommendations to farmers – and 2011, fertilizer use dropped by 7.7 million tons.

【参考答案】that/which

3.(2017·新课标卷III·短文改错)Around me in picture are the things they were very important in my life at that time: car magazines and musical instruments.

【参考答案】 they→that/which

【答案解析】考查定语从句。they不能引导定语从句,因为指代things,所以把they改为that或者which。

4.(2017·北京卷·单项填空)The little problems ________ we meet in our daily lives may be inspirations for great inventions.

A. that            B. as         C. where          D. when

【参考答案】A

【答案解析】考查定语从句。先行词是 the little problems, 在从句中作 meet的宾语,故选关系代词that。句意:我们在日常生活中遇到的那些小问题有可能会成为伟大发明的灵感。&网

5.Among the many dangers__________ sailors have to face, probably the greatest of all is fog.

A.which         B. what      C. where        D. when

【参考答案】A

向二that which只能用其中一个的情况1.只能用that,不能用which的情况

(1)先行词是all,something,everything,anything,nothing,little,much,few等不定代词或先行词被all,any,every,no,little,much,some等词修饰。

☞All the people that come from the country work much harder.

所有来自农村的人工作都更努力得多。

(2)先行词被序数词、 形容词最高级、 the only, the very, the last等修饰时, 关系代词通常只用that, 不用which.如:

☞The first English novel that I read was Cities.

我读的第一本英文小说是《城市》。

☞This is one of the most exciting football games that I have ever seen.

这是我见过的最激动人心的足球比赛之一。

☞This is the only thing that we can do now.

这是我们现在惟一能做的事情。

(3)先行词既有人又有物时, 关系代词只用that, 不用which.如:

☞The scientist and his achievements that you told me about are admired by us all.

我们所有人都钦佩你告诉我的那位科学家和他所取得的成就。

☞The foreign visitors spoke highly of the pioneers and their performances that they saw at the Children’s Palace. 外国游客高度赞扬了他们在少年宫所看到的少先队员以及他们的表演。

(4) 关系代词在限定性定语从句中作表语并带有类比含义时, 通常只用that, 不用which.如:

☞ He is no longer the star that he was.

他不再是过去的那位明星了。

☞ Our school is no longer the school that it used to be.

我们的学校不再是以前的那所学校了。

(5) 句中其他位置已出现which, 为避免重复, 不用which而用that引导限定性定语从句。如:

☞Which is the car that has overtaken us? 超过我们的是哪辆车?2.只用which,不能用that的情况

(1) 在介词提前到关系代词之前形成“介词+关系代词”结构来修饰表事物的先行词时, 关系代词必须用which.如:

☞The house in which we live is very large. 我们住的房子非常大。

☞This is the reference book of which the teacher is speaking.

这就是老师正在谈及的那本参考书。

注意: 如果介词不放在修饰事物的限定性定语从句的句首, which就可换为that, 如:

☞This is the question which/that we’ve had so much discussion about. =This is the question about which we’ve had so much discussion. 这就是我们已经多次讨论过的问题。

(2) 先行词为“those+表事物的复数名词”时, 关系代词通常只用which而不用that.例如:

☞Students should keep in mind those regulations which restrict their behavior.

学生应牢记那些规范自己的行为准则。

☞A bookshop should deal with a variety of those best sellers which are newly published.

书店应该经营新出版的各种畅销书。

(3)当先行词指物,关系词在句中作主语或宾语,引导非限制性定语从句的关系词只能用which,而不用that。

1.(2017·新课标卷I·语法填空)Like anything, it is possible to have too much of both,    70    is not good for the health.

【参考答案】 which

2.(2017·新课标卷II·短文改错)In their spare time, they are interesting(改为interested) in planting vegetables in their garden, that is on the rooftop of their house.

题组一 基础过关

I.单句语法填空

1.Ellen was a painter of birds and of nature, ________, for some reason, had withdrawn from all human society.

2.Care of the soul is a gradual process in ________ even the small details of life should be considered.

3.That evening, ________ I will tell you more about later, I ended up working very late.

4.Happiness and success often come to those ________ are good at recognizing their own strengths.

5.Mo Yan was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2012, ________ made one of the Chinese people’s  long-held dreams come true.

6.The president of the World Bank says he has a passion for China, ________ he remembers starting as early as his childhood.

7.Finally he reached a lonely island ________ was completely cut off from the outside world.

题组二能力提升

I单项填空

1.This year’s children’s party, __________ some parents were invited to, was a great success.

A.which B.why C.whose D.where

2.The death of the closest relatives, __________ almost every one of us has experienced, always makes  people feel bitter and unbearable.

A.which B.who C.as D.the one

3.—Have you heard any news about Sarah?

—Yes, she was promoted to president of her company, __________surprised everyone.

A.who B.that C.which D.it

4.There is no success without hard work; success is something __________is only earned after much labor.

A.which B.that C.what D.不填

5.It is said that a most popular emoji (expression of emotion on the Internet) is the "face with the rolling eyes", ______ is used in 14 percent of text messages.

A.that B.what C.which D.whose

6.He isn’t such a man ______ he used to be.

A.who B.whom C.that D.as

7.It was the training__________he had as a young man__________ made him such a good engineer.

A.what, that B.that, what

C.that, which D.which, that

8.Actually, there are grammatical mistakes many students make __________keep them from writing the good compositions.

A.what B.that

C.who D.whether

9.Many universities share teaching resources online, creating a learning space ______ benefits life-long learners.

A.how B.what

C.which D.where

10.Something______ really_______ ,in my opinion, is having computer skills.

A.that; counts B.which; counts

C.that; counts on D.which; counts on

II.语法填空

阅读下面短文,在空白处填入 1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

No one loves me more than my parents, especially my father. My father is stout and strong,   1    a severe look on his face and keen expressive eyes. At first sight you may feel him hard     2  ( approach ). In fact he is very kind and considerate. I believe my father is a    3   ( talent ) man. He is decisive and efficient in doing things. By his own talents and years of efforts, he    4   ( provide ) his family with a good social position and a    5   ( relative ) rich life. Besides, he lives in harmony with others and never quarrels with anyone, so people from all walks of life come to my home, from    6    I’ve gained lots of social experiences. But at home he is a strict parent who is hard on me and has high    7   ( expectation ) of me. I can see that my idling away time    8    ( hurt ) him deeply, while if I have done something great and meaningful, such as   19___ ( write ) a book, he will be more excited than me. I always remind    10   ( me ) I must go on and on, and never shall I give up halfway.

 

题组三体验真题

1.(2018·江苏卷·单项填空)Self-driving is an area _______ China and the rest of the world are on the same starting line.

A.that B. where

C.which D. when

2.(2018·天津卷·单项填空) Kae, _________sister I shared a room with when we were at college, has gone to work in Australia.

A.whom B. that

C.whose D. her

3.(2016·北京卷·单项填空)I live next door to a couple ________ children often make a lot of noise.

A.whose    B. why

C.where    D. which

4.(2016浙江卷·单项填空) Scientists have advanced many theories about why human beings cry tears , none of ______ has been proved.

A.whom        B. which

C.what          D. that

5.(2014·山东卷·单项填空)A company ______profits from home markets are declining may seek opportunities abroad.

A.which      B. whose

C.who      D. why

题组一 基础过关

I.单句语法填空

1. who

【解析】句意:埃伦是一个专画鸟类和自然风景的画家。由于某种原因,她远离了人类社会。此题考查非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词Ellen。因为关系词指人并且在从句中作主语,所以只能用who。

2. which

3. which

【解析】句意:那晚我工作到很晚,稍后我会告诉你更多关于那晚的事。先行词为that evening,将先行词代入非限制性定语从句后为:I will tell you more about that evening later.由此可见关系词在定语从句中作about的宾语,且表示"物",故用which引导。

4. who

【解析】句意:幸福和成功经常青睐那些善于发现自身长处的人。先行词为those,将先行词代入非限制性定语从句后为:Those are good at recognizing their own strengths.由此可见,先行词在定语从句中作主语,且表示"人",故用who。

5. which

【解析】句意:莫言被授予2012年诺贝尔文学奖,这使得中国人长久以来拥有的梦想之一变成了现实。which引导非限制性定语从句,指代前面整个主句。

6. which

【解析】句意:世界银行主席说他对中国有一种情结,他记得这种情结始于他的儿童时代。先行词是a passion for China,且在定语从句中作starting的宾语,要用关系代词,在非限制性定语从句中用which。

7. which/that

【解析】句意:他最后到了一座完全与外面世界隔绝的孤岛上。定语从句修饰的先行词是island,将先行词代入定语从句后为:The island was completely cut off from the outside world.由此可见先行词在定语从句中作主语,且先行词表示"物",可以用which或that引导。

题组二能力提升

I单项填空

3.C 【解析】考查定语从句。分析句子成分可知,此处为非限定性定语从句,连词在从句中作主语,指代前面"她被提升为她公司的主席"这件事。故选C。

4.B 【解析】考查定语从句连接词。句意:没有一样成功不通过艰辛的工作;成功是只有通过大量苦干后才能赚得的东西。根据句意及句子结构分析可知,此处为定语从句,修饰先行词something,修饰指物的不定代词时,只能用that,不能用which,本题中的连接词在从句中作主语,不能省略。故选B。

5.C   【解析】考查非限定性定语从句。分析句子结构可知, 此处为非限定性定语从句, 先行词为词组face with the rolling eyes, 连接词在从句中充当主语。故选C。

6.D 【解析】考查连词。such… as是固定用法,as引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语。在本题中as作表语。句意:他不再是以前的那样了。故选D。

7.D  【解析】考查强调句和定语从句。“he had as a young man”位于名词the training之后,是其定语从句,且从句缺少宾语,指代the training,用which或that;“It was the training”与“made him such a good engineer”构成强调句,强调主语the training,应用that连接,故选D项。

8.B 【解析】考查定语从句连词。先行词为“grammatical mistakes”,关系代词that引导定语从句,并在从句中作主语。grammatical mistakes后面还跟了一个定语从句that/ which many students make.从句中引导词that或which作make的宾语,省去了。句意:事实上,许多学生所犯的语法错误使他们写不出好的作文来。故选B。

9.C 【解析】考查定语从句。句意:很多大学在网上分享教育资源,创造一种可以使终身学习者受益的学习空间。使用定语从句,先行词是learning space,指物,定语从句中缺少主语,用which引导定语从句。故选C。

10.A 【解析】考查定语从句。由句子结构可知,something后的主谓结构是它的定语从句,指代不定代词something,在从句中作主语,应用that;count用作不及物动词,表示“很重要”,count on…“指望;依赖”,关系代词that指代something,谓语动词应用单数,故选A项。&网

II.语法填空

【语篇解读】本文是一篇记叙文。讲述父亲是一个结实健壮的人,友好善良,用自己的天赋和努力为家人创造了好的生活,但是父亲对我严格,期待很高。我将不会辜负父亲的厚望,一定努力,决不不半路放弃。

1.with

【解析】考查介词。with"有;拥有"。句意:我的父亲是结实健壮的,脸上神色严肃 ,有着一双锐利而富有友情的眼睛。故填with。

3.talented

【解析】考查形容词。句意:父亲是一个有天赋的人。talented"有天赋的"修饰man作定语,作定语用形容词。故填talented。

4.has provided

【解析】考查动词。句意:用自己的天赋和多年的努力,父亲为全家提供了好的社会地位和相对富裕的生活。根据语境可知,"提供"这一动作指过去发生的动作对现在造成的结果,用现在完成时。主语是第三人称单数。故填has provided。

5.relatively

【解析】考查副词。relatively"相对地"修饰rich作状语,作状语用副词。故填relatively。

6.whom

【解析】考查定语从句。"from ___6___ I’ve gained lots of social experiences"作定语修饰all walks of life,作介词宾语,指人,用关系代词whom。故填whom。

7.expectations

【解析】考查名词。句意:但是在家里,他是一个对我要求严格的严厉的父亲,对我有很高的期望。形容词high修饰名词,expectation"期望"是可数名词。故填expectations。

8.hurts

【解析】考查动词。句意:我明白我虚度的时间深深伤害了他。讲述现在的事情,且主语是第三人称单数。故填hurts。

9.writing

【解析】考查词性转化。  such as"诸如",as是介词,介词后跟动名词作宾语。故填writing。

10.myself

【解析】考查代词。句意:我总是提醒我自己我必须一直向前,绝不半路放弃。主语和宾语指同一事物,作宾语用翻身代词。故填myself。

题组三 体验真题

1.B

【解析】考查定语从句。句意:自动驾驶是一个中国和世界其它国家都在同一起跑线的领域。句中先行词为area,在从句中作地点状语,故用关系副词where,相当于in which。故选B。

2.C

3.A

【解析】考查定语从句的关系词。a couple是先行词,这对夫妻的孩子很吵,children和couple是所属关系,故用whose作定语,whose children相当于the children of whom,故选A。

4B

【解析】句意:关于人类为什么哭的时候会流泪,科学家已经提出了很多理论,没有一个被证明了。分析句子结构可知,"none of ______ has been proved"是定语从句,先行词是theories,指物,定语从句中用代词+介词+关系代词which引导。故选B。

5.B

【解析】这是一个定语从句,a company 是先行词,profit和 a company是所属关系,所以要用关系代词whose。句意为:在国内市场利润减少的公司可能会寻求国外发展的机会。故答案选B。

高考英语

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2019-12-20 9:42:36

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高考英语考点——关系副词引导的定语从句

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