高考英语考点——虚拟语气

考点解读

【命题解读】

对虚拟语气的考查重点在于根据句子的语境灵活多样地运用虚拟语气,宾语从句中虚拟语气的应用,交际用语中为表示委婉而使用的虚拟语气,含蓄条件句中的虚拟语气,以及特殊句型中的虚拟语气等。

【命题预测】

在特定语境下,情态动词和虚拟语气与动词的时态和语态相结合的考查是近年来高考的趋势。

【复习建议】

  1. 掌握虚拟语气的基本用法;
  2. 掌握含蓄虚拟条件句的用法;
  3. 掌握主从句时间不一致的虚拟条件句的用法;
  4. 掌握名词性从句中的虚拟语气的用法;
  5. 掌握wish/if only/would rather从句中的虚拟语气的用法。

一 if条件句中的虚拟语气

☞If I were you,I would take an umbrella.

如果我是你,我会带把伞。

☞We would have called a taxi yesterday if Harold hadn’t offered us a ride home.

如果昨天哈罗德没送我们回家,我们会打出租车回家的。

【巧学妙记】

1.(2017·北京卷·单项填空) They might have found a better hotel if they _________ a few more kilometers.

A.droveB. would driveC. were to drive    D. had driven

【参考答案】D

2.(2017·北京卷·单项填空) If the new safety system ________ to use, the accident would never have happened.

A.had been put     B.were put

C.should be put      D.would be put

【参考答案】A

【答案解析】考查虚拟语气。根据句意可知是对过去情况的虚拟,从句用had done形式, 故答案选 A。句意:如果新的安全系统已投入使用的话, 这次事故就不会发生了。

2.(2016·天津卷·单项填空)I was wearing a seatbelt. If I hadn’t been wearing one, I __________.

A.were injured        B. would be injured

C.had been injured     D. would have been injured

【参考答案】D

【答案解析】句意:我当时系着安全带。如果我没有系安全带,我就会受伤了。使用虚拟语气,根据if条件句用的had done,可知,主句用would have done表示对过去情况的虚拟,而且I和injure是被动关系。故选D。

二 错综时间条件句的虚拟语气

当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,被称为"错综时间条件句",动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间做出相应的调整。

☞If you had followed the doctor’s advice,you would be better now.

如果你当时听医生建议的话,你现在就好多了。

1.(2018·天津卷·单项填空)If we ___________the flight yesterday, we would be enjoying our holiday on the beach

A.had caught B. caught

C.have caught D. would catch

【答案】A

点睛:本题考查虚拟语气。虚拟语气重要做题原则:根据题干中主句或从句中动词形式判断所考查的动词的虚拟时间,一般要保持一致,但要注意错综时间虚拟语气要根据各自所表示的虚拟时间做出调整。本题就是错综条件虚拟语气,从句与过去事实相反,故用had + v-ed,主句与现在事实相反。

2.(2016·江苏卷·单项填空)If it_________ for his invitation the other day, I should not be here now.

A.had not been B.should not be

C.were not to be       D. should not have been

【参考答案】A

【答案解析】本句属于错综条件句的虚拟语气。if从句表示与过去事实相反,所以使用过去完成时,主句表示与现在事实相反,所以使用"情态动词+动词原形"。句意:如果不是因为前几天他的邀请,我现在就不会在这里了。故A正确。

三 省略if的倒装句

在条件句中可省略if,把were,had,should提到句首,变为倒装句式。

☞If I were at school again, I would study harder.

→Were I at school again, I would study harder.

如果我重回学校,我会更加努力学习。

☞If you had come earlier, you would catch the bus.

→ Had you come earlier, you would catch the bus.

要是你来的再早点,你可能就赶上公交了。

☞If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing.

→ Should it rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing.

要是明天下雨,我们就不去爬山了。

(2017·江苏卷·单项填空)________not for the support of the teachers, the student could not overcome her difficulty.

A.It  were         B.Were  it

C.It was           D.Was  it

【参考答案】B

四 含蓄条件句中的虚拟语气

有时候,虚拟条件不是通过if引导的条件句来表示,而是暗含在上下文中。

(1)用but for 、without(如果没有)等来代替条件从句。

☞Without electricity human life would be quite different.

=If there were no electricity, human life would be quite different.

如果没有电,人类的生活将会有很大不同。

(2)用otherwise、or(or else)、even though等表示与上文的情况相反,从而引出虚拟语气。

☞I lost your address. Otherwise, I would have visited you long before.

=I lost your address. If I hadn’t lost your address, I would have visited you long before.

你的地址我弄丢了,要不我早就去拜访你了。

(3)虚拟条件通过but暗示出来。

☞He would have given you more help,but he was too busy. 他本来会给你更多的帮助,但是他太忙了。

也就是说,如果那时他不忙,他可以给你更多的帮助。句中but he was too busy实际上暗示了一个虚拟条件——如果那时他不忙。

☞He would lose weight,but he eats too much. 他本来可以减肥的,但是他吃得太多了。

也就是说,如果他吃得不多的话,他是可以减肥的。句中的but he eats too much实际上暗示了一个虚拟条件——如果他吃得不多。

1.(2018·天津卷·单项填空) I can’t find my purse. I___________ it in the supermarket yesterday, but I’m not sure.

A.should leave B. must have left

C.might leave D. could have left

【参考答案】D

2.(2015·重庆卷·单项填空)Without his wartime experiences, Hemingway____ his famous novel A Farewell to Arms.

A.didn’t write   B. hadn’t written

C.wouldn’t write   D. wouldn’t have written

【参考答案】D

【答案解析】本题是含蓄条件句。句意:没有他战时的经验,海明威就不可能写出著名的小说《永别了武器》。根据without his wartime experience没有战时的经历,可知表示对于过去的否定猜测,故主句用would have done,因此选D项。

五 名词性从句中的虚拟语气

1.用于表示建议、愿望、命令等动词后的宾语从句中

常见的动词有:demand,order,require,insist,suggest,propose,advise,request,urge,command,prefer,desire,recommend等。宾语从句中的虚拟语气结构为"should+动词原形",should可以省略。

☞Her mother suggested that she should go and see the doctor.她妈妈建议她去看医生。

2.用于主语从句中

常见句型:

It is important/necessary/urgent/essential/ … + that…

It is sb’s order/desire/suggestion/advice/ … + that…

It is suggested/advised/demanded/requested/ … + that

从句谓语形式:(should+)动词原形

☞It is ordered that the army (should) get there by 4 a.m. 军队必须在上午4点之前到达那里。

☞It is necessary that we (should) clean the room every day. 我们每天打扫房间是有必要的。

☞It is suggested that the meeting (should) be put off till next week.人们建议会议推迟到下周。

3.用于表语从句和同位语从句中

在suggestion,proposal,order,plan,idea,request,advice等名词后的表语从句和同位语从句中要用虚拟语气,其构成是"should+动词原形",should可以省略。

☞His demand is that the boy should go with him.他要求这个男孩和他一起去。

☞Our suggestion is that you (should) be the first to go. 我们的建议是你应该第一个去。

☞He issued the order that the troops (should) withdraw at once. 他命令部队马上撤退。

1.(2018·江苏卷·单项填空) It’s strange that he _______ have taken the books without the owner’s permission.

A.would B. should

C.could D. might

【参考答案】B

2.(2016·全国新课标卷II·短文改错)Some classmates suggest we can go to places of interest nearby.

【参考答案】删除can或can改为should

【答案解析】考查虚拟语气。动词suggest作为建议讲的时候,后面的宾语从句要使用虚拟语气"(should+)动词原形",所以本句可以删除can或can改为should。

六 wish 宾语从句中的虚拟语气

1.表示与现在事实相反的愿望,

构成:主语 + wish (that) +从句主语+动词过去式(be一律用were。

☞I wish I knew everything in the world. 我希望我知道世界上的一切。

☞I wish that the experiment were a success. 我希望实验是成功的。

2.表示与过去事实相反的愿望,

构成:主语 + wish (that) + 从句主语 + would/could + have + 过去分词或had + 过去分词。

☞I wish that you had called yesterday. 我希望你昨天打来电话。

☞I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I had been there. 我没有去参加聚会,但我真希望我去过那儿。

3.表示将来不大可能实现的愿望,

构成:主语 + wish (that) + 从句主语 + would/should/could/might +动词原形。

☞I wish that he could try again. 我希望他能再试一次。

☞I wish that someday I should live on the moon. 我希望有一天我能在月球上生活。

1.(2018·江苏卷·单项填空)There is a good social life in the village, and I wish I  _______ a second chance to become more involved.

A.had B. will have

C.would have had D. have had

【答案】A

2.(2015·天津)I wish I ______ at my sister’s wedding last Tuesday, but I was on a business trip in New York then.

A.will be B. would be

C.have been D. had been

【参考答案】D

【答案解析】句意:上个周二我本希望参加我姐姐的婚礼,但那时我在纽约出差。本题考查wish引导的宾语从句,表示与过去事实相反的愿望,从句用had + 过去分词。根据句意可知选D。

七 其他句型中的虚拟语气

1.would rather后的宾语从句中,表示愿望,意为"宁愿;但愿"。用一般过去时表示与现在或将来事实相

反;用过去完成时表示与过去事实相反。

☞I would rather he had passed the exam.

我宁愿他通过了那次考试。

2.在"It is (about/high) time+that从句"中,谓语动词常用过去式或"should+动词原形"表示虚拟语气,注意should不可省略。

☞It’s high time that we devoted ourselves to environmental protection.

是我们致力于环境保护的时候了。

3.as if,as though引导的表语从句和方式状语从句中常用虚拟语气,与现在事实相反用一般过去时;与过去事实相反用过去完成时。

☞They talked and talked as if they would never meet again.

他们谈啊谈好像永远不会再见面一样。

4.if only引导的感叹句中,用虚拟语气表示愿望。

☞Look at the trouble we’re in.If only we had taken our teacher’s advice!

看看我们所处的困境,要是我们接受老师的建议就好了!

题组一 基础过关

单句改错

1.I’d rather you saw the film yesterday.

2.It is time that I go to pick up my daughter at school.

3.I wish I knew the truth of the matter.

4.If you listened to the doctor,you would be all right now.

5.You could do better,but you didn’t try your best.

6.If we took the other road,we might have arrived earlier.

7.He suggested that we took  the teacher’s advice.

8.If he had been studying hard,he would work in the office now.

9.But for the rain,we should have a pleasant journey.

10.If only I have read the books on reading list before I attended the lecture.

题组二能力提升

单项填空

1.The driver was really careless, otherwise the traffic accident ______________.

A.didn’t happen B. hadn’t happened

C.wouldn’t happen D. wouldn’t have happened

2.If you ______________ yourself to doing everything in the order given, you would miss an opportunity to be a unique individual.

A.commit B. committed

C.have committed D. had committed

3. The boy might have drowned but for the fact that his father______________ beside him on the deck at that time.

A.was standing B. stood

C.had stood D. would have stood

4.—What do you think of hisperformance in the match?

—He ______________, but today was not his day.

A.need have scored B. could have scored

C.should score D. would score

5.—I didn’t watch the program "Where are we going, Dad?" yesterday.

—I ______________, either, if my father hadn’t reminded me.

A.wouldn’t have B. didn’t

C.wouldn’t D. hadn’t

6.I’d rather the two countries ______________ an end to the war. Then their people could live in peace.

A.puts B. would put

C.put D. should put

7.We ______________ the difficulty together, but why didn’t you tell me?

A.should face B. might face

C.could have faced D. must have faced

8.The report urged that all the children ______________ to swim.

A.are taught B. be taught

C.to be taught D. being taught

9.The match sounds fantastic; how I wish I______________ it like you.

A.watched B. had watched

C.would watch D. have watched

9.This nationwide smog should serve as a reminder to all, indicating a high time that we______________ on what we’ve done to the environment.

A.have reflected B. are reflecting

C.will reflect D. reflected

题组三体验真题

1.(2017天津)—Do you have Betty’s phone number?

—Yes. Otherwise, I ________ able to reach her yesterday.

A.hadn’t been    B.wouldn’t have been

C.weren’t          D.wouldn’t be

2.(2016·浙江)Had the governments and scientists not worked together , AIDS-related deaths _______ since their highest in 2005.

A.had not fallen          B. would not fall

C.did not fall            D. would not have fallen

3.(2016·北京)Why didn’t you tell me about your trouble last week? If you ________ me, I could have helped.

A.told          B. had told

C.were to tell     D. would tell

4.(2015·安徽)It is lucky we booked a room, or we ______nowhere to stay now.

A.had B. had had

C.would have D. would have had

5.(天津市和平区2017届高三第三次质量调查(三模))— What happened to the young trees we planted last week?

— The trees __________ well, but I didn’t water them.

A.might grow B. would have grown

C.needn’t have grown D. would grow

 

 

 

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