高考英语考点——情态动词

考点解读

【命题解读】

高考研究英语中常用的情态动词主要有can,could,may,might,must,will,would,shall,should,ought to,dare,need,used to,had better等。在学习情态动词时应注意以下几点:同一情态动词表示不同的意义的情况;情态动词后跟各种形式的用法;尤其要注意"情态动词+完成式"是高考中的重点所在。

【命题预测】

情态动词是各地高考试题中的必考项目,每年高考单独命题区的单项填空必有一道考查情态动词的项目。新课标卷主要在语法填空和短文改错中考查。考点依次是:推测(可能性)→请求/允许→必要性→特殊用法。试题的立意不偏不怪,但有效信息越来越隐蔽,语境越来越真实,考查角度越来越细致,这些因素在很大程度上增加了试题的难度。

【复习建议】  

  1. 真实的语境中对情态动词的理解和把握;
  2. 掌握情态动词表示推测和可能性的用法;
  3. 掌握情态动词表达"情感、态度、语气等"方面的用法。

一 can,could与be able to的用法

1.表示能力,意为"能,会"。

☞Many people can use the computer.

许多人会用电脑。

☞If you have a good sleep,you will be able to work out this problem.

如果你好好睡一觉,你将能够解出这道题。

☞I could have worked out the problem,but I was too nervous.

我本来可以解决这个问题,但我太紧张了。

2.can/could表示惊讶,常用在否定句和疑问句中。

☞How can you treat me like that?

你怎么能那样对我?

3.can/could表示礼貌地请求别人做某事,意为"能,可以"。

☞Can I have a word with you? It won’t take long.(表示请求)我可以和你谈谈吗?不会花很多时间的。

(2018·北京卷·单项填空)In today’s information age, the loss of data _________ cause serious problems for a company.

A.need B. should C. can     D. must

【参考答案】C

2.(2017·北京卷·单项填空)Samuel, the tallest boy in our class, ________  easily reach the books on the top shelf.

A.must     B.should

C.can      D.need

【参考答案】C

二 maymight的用法

1.表示请求、允许时,might比may的语气更委婉一些,否定回答时要用mustn’t,表示"不可以""禁止""阻止"之意。

☞—May I play basketball this afternoon?

—No,you mustn’t.

——今天下午我可以打篮球吗?

——不,不行。

2."may/might as well+动词原形"意为"最好,倒不如",may/ might well+动词原形,意为"很可能"。

☞He may/ might well stay in Beijing now.

他现在很可能呆在北京。

☞If you think the price of beef is too high,you might as well buy some pork.It depends on you.

如果你认为牛肉太贵的话,你不妨买些猪肉。你自己决定。

You          feel all the training a waste of time, but I’m a hundred percent sure later you’ll be grateful you did it.

A.should     B. need     C. shall     D. may

【参考答案】D

三 must与need的用法

1.must用于否定句,表示"禁止",表示说话者的命令或指令,语气比较强烈。

☞You mustn’t play with the knife,or you may hurt yourself.你千万不要玩刀,否则会伤到自己。

2.must表示必要性,意为"必须"。

☞Progress must lead to a better life and a better way of doing things.

发展一定会促成一种更好的生活,更好的做事情的方法。

3.must表示偏执、固执,意为"非得,偏要"。

☞If you must go,at least wait until the storm is over.

如果你非要走的话,至少等到暴风雨结束。

4.need 的用法:

(1)情态动词,"需要,有必要 ",一般用于否定句或疑问句中。

You needn’t come here this afternoon. 你今天下午不必来。

(2)行为动词,"需要, 有必要",可以用于各种句式中。

You don’t need to go now. 你不必现在就走。

I need to have a rest. 我需要休息一下。

Do we need to finish all the work today? 我们今天需要完成所有的工作吗?

【巧学妙记】

1.—Can’t you stay a little longer?

—It’s getting late. I really _________go now, My daughter is home alone.

A .may    B .can   C . must   D .dare

【参考答案】C

2.You __________be careful with the camera. It costs!

A .must      B. may      C. can      D. will

【参考答案】A

【答案解析】考查情态动词。根据下文的it costs可知,照相机很昂贵,可推断此处是说,你一定要非常小心对待照相机。故选A 。may可能;can能够,有时会;will会,愿意。

四 will与would的用法

1.表示请求、建议等,would比will委婉客气。

☞Would you mind opening the window for me?

请你给我打开窗户好吗?

2.will和would表示意志、愿望和决心。

☞I will never talk to him again.

我再也不愿意和他说话了。

3.will可以表示一种习惯性的动作,有"总是"或"总要"之意。

Fish will die without water.没有水,鱼会死去。

1.(2018·新课标II卷·短文改错)As kid, I loved to watch cartoons, but no matter how many times I asked to  them, my parents would not to let me.

五 shall,should与ought to的用法

1.shall用于第一、第三人称疑问句中,表示说话人征求对方的意见和向对方请示。

☞Shall we begin our new lesson today?

我们今天开始上新课好吗?

2.shall用于第二、第三人称陈述句中,表示说话人给对方的命令、警告、允诺或威胁。

☞You shall be punished for what you have done.

你必须为你的所作所为受到惩罚。

3.should表示义务、职责等,意为"应该"。

☞You should be strict with yourself as an officer.

作为一名官员,你应该严格要求自己。

4.ought to表示应该。

☞You ought not to be late for such an important meeting.

这么重要的会议你不应该迟到的。

5.shall还可表示法律、规定和条例中规定的"应该"。

Whoever drives through a red light shall be fined at least 200 yuan.不论谁驾车闯红灯,罚款至少200元。

六 情态动词表推测的用法

1.can用于肯定句中表示客观的可能性,意为"有时会";用于疑问句中可以表示推测,意为"可能",有时表示一种惊讶的语气;用于否定句中也可以表示推测,can’t意为"不可能",语气很强烈。

☞As we all know,an experienced teacher can make mistakes.

众所周知,一位有经验的老师也会犯错。

☞He can’t have left. His coat is here.

他不可能已经走了。他的外套还在这里。

☞Mr Bush is on time for everything. How can it be that he was late for the meeting?布什先生做什么事情都很准时,他怎么可能开会迟到呢?

2.may/might用于肯定句中可以用来表示不十分肯定的推测,意为"有可能";用于否定句中也可以表示推测,may not意为"可能不",表示一种不太确定的语气。

☞—What are you doing this Saturday?

—I’m not sure,but I might go to the Rolling Stones concert.

——本周六你打算干什么?

——还说不定,但我可能会去滚石音乐会。

3.must表示推测时只能用于肯定句中,意为"一定,必定",表示十分肯定的语气(在疑问句中或否定句中要用can/could)。

☞Someone must have used my umbrella yesterday. I found it wet.

昨天一定有人用了我的雨伞,我发现它湿了。

4.should用来表示推测时意为"应该",即含有"按道理来说应当如此"的意思。

☞There shouldn’t be any difficulty about passing the road test since you have practiced a lot in the driving school.

因为你在驾校训练了那么多,通过路考应该没什么困难。

七 "情态动词+have done"的用法

1."must have done"

☞表示对过去事情的肯定推测,译成"一定做过某事",该结构只用于肯定句。

☞It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. 昨晚一定下雨了,因为地面还是湿的。

☞You must have been mad to speak to the servant. 你和仆人说话,一定是发疯了。

2."cant have done"

表示对过去事情的否定推测,译成"不可能做过某事"。

☞Mr Smith can’t have gone to Beijing, for I saw him in the library just now. 史密斯先生不可能去北京了,我刚才还在图书馆见过他。

☞Mary can’t have stolen your money. She has gone home. 玛丽不可能偷你的钱,她回家去了。

3."can have done"

☞表示对过去行为的怀疑,用于疑问句,译成"可能做过……吗?"。

☞There is no light in the room. Can they have gone out? 屋里没有灯,他们可能出去了吗?

☞There is nowhere to find them. Where can they have gone? 到处找不到他们,他们可能到什么地方去呢?

4."could have done"

是虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意思是本来能够做某事而没有做。

☞He could have passed the exam, but he was too careless. 本来他能够通过考试,但是他太粗心。

5."may have done"

表示对发生过的事情的推测,意思是"可能已经"或"也许已经",用于肯定句中。

☞—What has happened to George? 乔治发生了什么事?

—I don’t know. He may have got lost. 我不知道,他可能迷路了。

6."might have done"

表示对过去事情的推测,might与may意思相同,但可能性更小。多用于虚拟语气结构中。

☞She might have achieved greater progress, if you had given her more chances. 如果你多给她点机会,她可能已经取得了更大的成绩。

7."would have done"

虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意思是"本来会……"。

☞I would have told you all about the boy’s story, but you didn’t ask me. 我本来会告诉你这个小男孩的故事,但是你没有问我。

8."should have done"

意思是"本来应该做某事,而实际没做"。"shouldn’t+have+done"表示本来不应该做某事,而实际做了。含有指责对方或自责的含义。

☞Tom, you are too lazy. The work should have been finished yesterday. 汤姆,你太懒惰了,这项工作本来应该昨天就做完的。

☞Look, Tom is crying. I shouldn’t have been so harsh on him. 看,汤姆哭了,我本不应该对他如此严厉的。

9."ought to have done"

表示过去应该做而实际并没有做,译成"理应做……",往往表示遗憾。与"should have done"用法基本一样。

☞I ought to have gone home last Sunday. 我理应上星期日回家。

☞You ought not to have given him more help. 你不应该帮助他那么多。

10."need have done"

表示本来需要做某事而实际没有做。"needn’t have done"则表示"本来不需要做某事而实际做了"

☞I needn’t have bought so much wine — only five people came. 我本来没有必要买这么多酒,只来了五个人。

☞He need have hurried to the station. In that case, he wouldn’t have missed the train. 他本来需要快点去车站的,那样的话,他就不会误了火车。

(2015·福建卷·单项填空)—Sorry, Mum! I failed the job interview again.

—Oh, it’s too bad. You _____________ have made full preparations.

A.must B. can

C.would D. should

【参考答案】D

题组一 基础过关

I. 用适当的情态动词填空

1.Can you help me? I _________ never understand this.

2.___________ you tell me what time it is, please?

3.Henry ________ walk when he was one year old.

4.We are going for a walk. _________ you like to join us?

5.Tom, you ___________ leave your clothes on the floor like this.

6.The road is wet. It __________ have rained last night.

7.He has waited outside for half an hour. ___________ he come in?

8.These flowers have died. You _____________ have watered them.

9.__________ she be ten years old next month?

10.I ___________ have hurt your feelings but it was not my intention.

II. 单项填空

1.You _____________ give me a lift. I want to walk home for exercise.

A.needn’t B.couldn’t C.can’t D.mustn’t

2.Remember that in some countries, you _____________ take flowers of a certain colour, because they’re unlucky.

A.could not B.needn’t C.may not D.mustn’t

3.—Being young generations in China, _____________ they take up all of the challenges and opportunities that   this country offers?

—Absolutely.

A.mustn’t B.mightn’t C. shouldn’t D. couldn’t

4.—_____________ you interrupt now? Can’t you see I’m on the phone?

—Sorry, sir, but it’s an emergency.

A.Can B.Should C. Must D. Would

5.It is said that people _____________ reduce the risk of catching some serious diseases by exercising.

A.must B.can C. would D. need

6.I was very surprised that that little child _____________ have said such rude words to his parents.

A.might B.could C. would D. should

7.My phone _____________ have been stolen while I was taking a bus. I can’t find it anywhere.

A.can B.must C.should D.would

8.You _____________ so much cash with you, you know —that shop accepted checks.

A.couldn’t have taken B.wouldn’t have taken

C.shouldn’t have taken D.needn’t have taken

9.Without your help, we _____________ our task on time. I cannot thank you enough.

A.can’t finish B.couldn’t finish

C.can’t have finished D.couldn’t have finished

10.—Bob didn’t pass this exam.

—What a pity! He _____________.

A.should study hard B.should have studied hard

C.would have studied hard D.could have studied hard

题组二能力提升

用适当的情态动词完成下面短文

Miss Fang couldn’t read for very long without getting a headache. Her mother told her that she __1__go to the Health Service and see a doctor."You should see a doctor as soon as possible," she said."You __2__need glasses."

When Miss Fang had free time, she went to the Health Service. The appointment clerk said that the doctor __3__see her at 3:30.

Miss Fang replied that she would not be able to be there at 3:30 because she had a class then."The doctor __4__take you at about ten to four," the appointment clerk suggested.

"__5__I put you down for ten to four,or would you rather come tomorrow?"

Miss Fang thought she __6__(not) waste any more time. The teacher shouldn’t be unhappy if she asked for permission to leave the class a little early, as he was always so kind to everyone. And she replied, "I think I __7__make it at ten to four."

Miss Fang went to the class. She asked her teacher, "__8__I leave at 3:45 today?I __9__have an eye examination." As expected, the teacher said, "Yes, of course you __10__."

 

题组三体验真题

1.(2017·天津) My room is a mess, but I ________clean it before I go out tonight. I can do it in the morning.

A.daren’t      B.shouldn’t

C.needn’t     D.mustn’t

2.(2016·天津)It was really annoying; I ________ get access to the data bank you had recommended.

A.wouldn’t           B. couldn’t

C.shouldn’t         D. needn’t

3.(2016·浙江)George _________ too far . His coffee is still warm .

A.must have gone        B. might have gone

C.can’t have gone          D. needn’t have gone

4.(2015 • 重庆)You _________ be Carol. You haven’t changed a bit after all these years.

A.must B. can    C. will           D. shall

 

 

高考英语

高考英语考点——ed分词

2019-12-18 9:54:23

高考英语

高考英语考点——虚拟语气

2019-12-20 9:42:36

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