高考英语考点——ed分词

考点解读

规则动词的过去分词一般是由动词加ed构成(具体规则见后),不规则动词的过去分词见不规则动词表。过去分词则属于类动词

1.及物动词的过去分词作表语,与句子主语是被动关系,表示主语的状态,不但表示被动,还表示已完成了。

The cup is broken. 茶杯破了。

2.不及物动词的过去分词作表语,与句子主语是主动关系,表示主语的状态,只表示动作的完成。

He is retired. 他已退休。

3.有些过去分词作表语时,构成的谓语很接近被动结构。

考向一 过去分词作定语 

作定语用的过去分词相当于形容词,其逻辑主语就是它所修饰的名词。过去分词作定语分为前置和后置两种情况。

1.前置定语

单个的过去分词作定语,通常放在被修饰的名词之前。由及物动词转化而来的过去分词作定语,表示"被动和完成"含义,或只具有"被动"含义;由不及物动词转化而来的过去分词作定语,只表"完成"含义。

(1)被动和完成含义:

☞We must adapt our thinking to the changed conditions.

我们必须使我们的思想适应改变了的情况。

(2)被动含义:

☞She is a respected teacher.她是一位受人尊敬的老师。

(3)完成含义:

☞They are cleaning the fallen leaves in the yard.

他们正在打扫院子里的落叶。

2.后置定语

过去分词短语作定语时,通常放在所修饰的名词之后,它的作用相当于一个定语从句。

☞This will be the best novel of its kind ever written (=that has ever been written).

这将是这类小说中写得最好的。

☞Who were the socalled guests invited (=who had been invited) to your party last night?

昨晚被邀请参加你的晚会的那些所谓的客人是谁呀?

☞Yesterday I bought a book published by Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

昨天我买了一本外语教学与研究出版社出版的书。

1.(2017·北京卷) Jim has retired, but he still remembers the happy time ________ with his students.

A. to spend      B. spend

C. spending       D. spent

【参考答案】D

【答案解析】考查非谓语动词。 分析句子结构可知,“________ with his students “作后置定语,且”时光”是被度过,而且这里指的是”已经被度过的时光”, 所以用过去分词短语作后置定语。故选D。句意:吉姆已经退休了,但他仍然记得跟学生们一起度过的快乐时光。

2.(2016·江苏卷)In art criticism, you must assume the artist has a secret message ________within the work.

A.to hide B. hidden C. hiding D. being hidden

【参考答案】B

【答案解析】本句中名词短语a secret message与动词hide构成被动关系,所以使用过去分词短语hidden within the work在句中作后置定语,修饰名词短语a secret message,相当于定语从句that is hidden within  the work。AC项表示主动含义,D项强调正在进行,与语境不符。故B正确。

考向二  过去分词作宾补

过去分词作补语,表示"被动和完成"含义,或仅仅表示"状态"。

1.表示感觉或心理状态的动词(短语)(see,watch,observe,look at,hear,listen to,feel,notice,think等)

☞I have never heard the song sung in my school.我从未听过这首歌在我们学校唱过。

☞He watched the TV set carried out of the room.他看到电视机被搬到屋子外面了。

2.表示"使役"意义的动词(have,make,get,keep,leave等)

☞I had my leg broken in the football game.我的腿在足球赛中摔坏了。

☞The reporters keep us informed of the results of the games.

记者不断地告知我们比赛结果。

3.表示"希望"、"要求"意义的动词(like,order,want,wish,expect等后用过去分词或在过去分词前+to be)

☞Everyone wishes the matter(to be) settled as soon as possible.

人人都希望这件事情尽快解决。

☞I want my house(to be)completed before the national day.

我想让我的房子在国庆节前完工。

1.(2018·天津卷·单项填空)I need a new passport so I will have to have my photographs___________.

Ataking B. taken

C.being taken D. take

【参考答案】B

【答案解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:我需要一个 新护照,所以我将不得不拍照片。本题考查非谓语动词作宾语补足语,宾语my photograph与补足语之间为被动关系,故用过去分词作宾语补足语。C项表示正在进行。故选B.

  1. Back from his two-year medical service in Africa, Dr. Lee was very happy to see his mother_____

good care of at home.

  1. taking    B. taken     C. take    D. be taken

【参考答案】B

【答案解析】句意:在非洲医疗援助两年回来后,Dr. Lee很高兴看见妈妈被照顾得很好。his mother和take care of是被动关系,用过去分词作宾语补足语,所以选B。

考向三 过去分词作状语 

过去分词作状语,进一步说明谓语动词的动作和状态,即动作发生时的背景或状况。其逻辑主语通常是句子的主语,且与主语之间构成逻辑上的"动宾关系"或在逻辑上构成"系表结构"。过去分词短语在句中担任条件状语,原因状语以及时间状语时,通常放在句首;担任伴随状语或结果状语时,通常放在句末;担任方式状语时,一般位于句末,有时也可位于句首;担任让步状语时,一般位于句首,有时也可位于句末。

一、过去分词担任状语时的语法功能

1.原因状语

☞Caught in a heavy rain,he was all wet.因为淋了一场大雨,所以他全身湿透了。

☞Frightened by the noise in the night,the girl didn’t dare sleep in her room.

被夜晚的响声惊吓,那姑娘不敢睡在她的房间里了。

2.时间状语

☞Asked why he did it,the monitor said it was his duty.当被问及为何要做这件事时,班长说这是他的职责。

☞Approached in the dark the bulbs looked lonely and purposeless.在黑暗走近时,那些电灯显得孤单而无意义。

3.条件状语和假设状语

☞Grown in rich soil,these seeds can grow fast.如果种在肥沃的土壤里,这些种子能长得很快。

☞Given better attention,the accident could have been avoided.要是多加注意,那次事故就可以避免了。

4.方式或伴随状语

☞Surrounded by his students,the professor sat there cheerfully.那位教授在学生们的簇拥下,兴高采烈地坐在那儿。

☞He stood there silently,moved to tears.他静静地站在那里,被感动得热泪盈眶。

5.让步状语

☞Beaten by the police,sent to jail,Gandhi invented the principle of nonviolent resistance.

尽管受警察的殴打,被投入监牢,甘地却首创了非暴力抵抗的原则。

☞Defeated again,we did not lose heart.尽管再次被击败,但我们没有灰心。

6.独立成分(插入语)

☞Given good weather,our ship will reach Shanghai Monday evening.

假如天气好,我们的船将于星期一晚上到达上海。

☞Put frankly,I don’t agree with what he said.坦白地说,我不同意他所说的话。

二、与状语从句的相互转换

1.过去分词短语作时间状语,可转换为when,while或after等引导的状语从句。

☞Seen from the top of the hill,the park looks more beautiful.

→When it is seen from the top of the hill,the park looks more beautiful.

从山上往下看,这座公园看起来更加漂亮。

2.作条件状语,可转换为if,once或unless等引导的状语从句

☞Given more time,she would certainly have done much better.

→If she had been given more time,she would certainly have done much better.

如果有更多时间的话,她一定会干得更好些。

3.作原因状语,可转换为as,since或because等引导的状语从句。

☞The children,exhausted,fell asleep at once.

→As the children were exhausted they fell asleep at once.

由于劳累,孩子们很快就睡着了。

4.作让步状语,可转换为although,though或even if等引导的状语从句。

☞Although exhausted by the climb,we continued our journey.

→Although we were exhausted by the climb,we continued our journey.

我们虽然爬得很累,但我们仍然继续我们的旅程。

5.作方式状语,如有连词as if,就转换为as if引导的方式状语从句;若无连词,则转换为并列结构。

☞He began to cry as if bitten by a snake.

→He began to cry as if he was bitten by a snake.

他大叫起来,好像被蛇咬了。

6.作伴随状语,一般转换为并列结构。

☞Aunt Wu came in,followed by her daughter.

→Aunt Wu came in,and(she)was followed by her daughter.

吴大娘走进来,(她)后面跟着她的女儿。

【知识拓展】

1.现在分词与过去分词作状语在"逻辑"方面的差异:

过去分词作状语时,过去分词所表示的动作与句子主语之间通常构成逻辑上的动宾关系。

现在分词作状语时,现在分词所表示的动作与句子主语之间构成逻辑上的主谓关系。

☞Given more attention,the trees could have grown better.如果对这些树多关心一些,它们本来会长得更好。

☞Not knowing what to do,he went to his parents for help.由于不知如何办是好,他去找父母帮忙。

2.现在分词与过去分词作状语在"时间"方面的差异:

过去分词所表示的动作发生在谓语动作之前,或表示一种状态,与谓语动作同时发生或存在。现在分词的一般式表示的动作与谓语动作同时发生或在说话时正在进行;现在分词的完成式(having done)表示发生在谓语动作之前的一个"主动"动作;现在分词的完成式的被动式(having been done)表示发生在谓语动作之前的一个"被动"动作,常常和表示次数的短语以及时间段(for短语)连用,此时不能被过去分词所替换。在其他情况下通常被过去分词所替换,从而使句式更简洁。

☞Written in a hurry,this article was not so good!因为写得匆忙,这篇文章不是很好!

☞Reading carefully,he found something he had not known before.他仔细读书时,发现了一些从前不知道的东西。

☞Having been discussed several times,the decision was finally made.进行了几次讨论之后,终于作出了决定。

3.部分过去分词因来源于系表结构,作状语时不表示 "被动关系",其前不用being。

这样的过去分词及短语常见的有:lost(陷入某种状态);seated(坐);hidden(躲);stationed(驻扎);lost/absorbed in (沉溺于);dressed in(穿着);tired of(厌烦)等。

☞Lost/Absorbed in deep thought,he didn’t hear the sound.因为沉溺于思考之中,所以他没听到那个声音。

☞Faced with difficulties,we must try to overcome them.在遇到困难的时候,我们必须设法克服。

4.过去分词用作状语时,前面往往带有when,if,while,though,even if等连词,这样就能使过去分词所表示的意义更加明确。

这种带有连词的过去分词结构通常可看作是一种省略句,句中省略的部分总是"主语+be的相应变化形式",省略的主语通常与主句的主语相同。

☞When given a medical examination,you should keep calm.当你做体格检查时要保持镇定。

☞Although exhausted by the climb,he continued his journey.他虽然爬得很累,但他仍继续前进。

5.分词(短语) 作状语时,其逻辑上的主语要与句子的主语保持一致;否则分词(短语)就要有自己的逻辑主语(用名词或代词的主格来表示)。这种结构称为独立主格结构。独立主格结构常放在句首。表示时间、条件、原因时,其作用分别相当于一个时间、条件、原因状语从句。表示伴随方式时,相当于一个并列句。

☞The signal given,the bus started.信号一发出,汽车就开动了。

☞The football match(being) over,crowds of people poured out into the street.

足球赛一结束,人群便涌到大街上。

6.不定式与分词担任状语的差异:

(1)不定式在句中可以担任目的状语,结果状语(出乎意料的结果)以及原因状语(通常后置)。

☞To make himself heard,he raised his voice.为了被听清楚,他提高了嗓门。

☞He hurried home,only to find his money stolen.他匆忙赶到家中,结果却发现钱被盗了。

☞All of us are surprised to see his rapid progress.他的进步,我们都很吃惊。

(2)分词在句中可以担任除目的状语以外的其他形式的状语。

☞Seen from the top of the hill,the town is beautiful.从山上看,这座城镇很美。

☞Defeated,he remained a popular boxer.虽然被击败了,但他仍然是一位受欢迎的拳击手。

☞The guests entered the office,accompanied by the manager.客人们在经理的陪同下进了办公室。

1.(2018·北京卷·单项填空)  Ordinary soap, _________ correctly, can deal with bacteria effectively.

A.used B. to use C. using     D. use

【参考答案】A

【答案解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:如果正确使用的话,普通的肥皂可以有效地处理细菌。Ordinary soap can deal with bacterial effectively是主句,_________ correctly是条件状语,修饰ordinary soap,ordinary soap和use之间是被动关系,故要用过去分词,A选项正确。

2.________in the early 20th century, the school keeps on inspiring children’s love of art.

A.To found   B. Founding

C.C. Founded   D. Having founded

【参考答案】 C

【答案解析】 found与逻辑主语the school之间是被动关系,且已经完成,故用其过去分词形式作时间状语。解答非谓语动词的相关题时,先确定其逻辑主语,判断两者之间是主动关系还是被动关系,主动关系用现在分词,被动关系用过去分词。

考向四 过去分词作表语

过去分词作表语,通常表示主语所处的一种状态。

☞His colleagues were surprised at his absurd behaviour.同事们对他那荒诞的行为感到吃惊。

☞The city is surrounded on three sides by mountains.这座城市三面环山。

☞The door remained locked.门仍然锁着。

☞She looked disappointed.她看上去很失望。

For those with family members far away, the personal computer and the phone are important in staying ________.

A.connected B. connecting

C.to connect D. to be connected

【参考答案】 A

【答案解析】句意:对那些与家人离得比较远的人来说,笔记本电脑和电话在保持联系方面很重要本句中的stay是一个连系动词,后接形容词作表语。connected 是形容词化的过去分词,意为”有联系的,有来往的”,符合句意。

题组一 基础过关

I.用所给词的正确形式填空

1.Do you know the man with his hair ________ (tie) back?

2.— How are the team playing?

— They’re playing well, but one of them got ________ (hurt).

3.The stewardess asked all the passengers on board to remain ________ (seat) as the plane was about to land.

4.Don’t use words, expressions, or phrases ________ (know) only to people with special knowledge.

5.Get your answers ________ (check) before you hand in the papers.

6.She returned to the shop the following morning ________ (dress) in a woolen coat,with a handbag in one hand

and a long umbrella in the other.

7.________(satisfy) with her reply,Telemachus first set out for the island of the Cyclops to seek news of

Odysseus.

8.________(hesitate) whether to leave or not,the man stayed where he was.

9.________(warn) many times,they became more careful in doing the job.

10.________(seize) the letter from the boy,Maggie ran away at once.

Ⅱ.完成句子

1.We should be kept ________________(被告知) the latest news if we don’t want to fall behind. (inform)

2.He failed ________________(使得他自己被理解) by his teammates. (understand)

3.________________(留下深刻印象) the hardworking boy,Julia made up her mind to devote herself to science.(impress)

4.The general manager would like to see the plan ________________(被执行) by the end of the year.(carry)

5.________________(被吸引) the beauty of nature,the girl from London decided to spend another two days on the farm.(attract)

6.Sarah,hurry up.I’m afraid you can’t have time ________________(换好衣服) before the party.(get)

7.After his journey abroad,Richard Jones returned home,________________(筋疲力尽).  (exhaust)

8.________________(在山里迷路) for a week,the two students were finally saved by the local police.(lose)

9.________________(被投入使用) in April 2015, the hotline was meant for residents reporting water and heating supply breakdowns.(put)

10.________________(和……比较) the size of the whole earth,the biggest ocean does not seem big at all.(compare)

题组二能力提升

语法填空

To many people, video gaming is their hobby. Have you ever been so ____1___ (absorb) in a video game as to forget sleep and meals?Computer game ___2____ (design) often create interesting video games to tempt players to keep playing. These days,many employees play video games at work even ___3____ their employers have set rules to stop them from doing so. As a matter of fact,video game addiction is regarded as harmful,just like addiction  ____4____ drugs,alcohol,or gambling,and should be treated with care.

In the place ___5____ people work,addicted players are often seen as lazy,not sick;their bosses are not sympathetic to their addiction. If they have been caught several times ___6____ (play) video games at work,their salary may be cut,and even ___7___ (bad),they may lose their jobs. In some companies,the addicted players ___8___ (allow) to play video games only on stressful days,but their bosses will check their computers from time to time to make sure ____9____ they are doing their work. However,while some companies continue to find some methods of preventing workday playing,addicted players still have ___10___ (they) own ways to enjoy playing video games during working hours.

题组三体验真题

1.(2018·新课标III卷·语法填空)The noise shakes the trees as the male beats his chest and charges toward me. I quickly lower myself, ducking my head to avoid ____64____(look) directly into his eyes so he doesn’t feel____65____(challenge).

2.(2016·浙江卷)To return to the problem of water pollution, I’d like you to look at a study _________in Australia in 2012.

A.having conducted    B.to be conducted

C.conducting D.conducted

3.(2016·北京卷)______ over a week ago, the books are expected to arrive any time now.

A.Ordering                              B. To order

C.Having ordered                    D. Ordered

4.(2014·湖南卷)Children,when ______ by their parents, are allowed to enter the stadium.

A.to be accompanied B. to accompany

C.accompanying D. accompanied

题组一 基础过关

I.用所给词的正确形式填空

1.tied  2. hurt  3. seated  4. known  5. checked

6.dressed  7.Satisfied  8.Hesitating  9.Having been warned  10.Having seized

Ⅱ.完成句子

1.informed of  2.to make himself understood  3.Impressed by

4.carried out  5.Attracted by  6.to get changed

7.exhausted  8.Lost in the mountain  9.Put into use

10.Compared with

题组二能力提升

语法填空

【语篇解读】 本文是一篇议论文。玩电子游戏是很多人的爱好,有的人甚至为此废寝忘食。一些上班族在工作的时候也禁不住诱惑,偷偷地玩电子游戏,这给他们的老板带来了困扰,于是老板们想方设法阻止员工玩游戏。

1.【解析】根据句意"你曾经也沉溺于电子游戏以至于废寝忘食吗?"可知,题干考查的是短语be absorbed in,意为"沉浸于,沉溺于"。故空格处填absorbed。

【答案】absorbed

2. 【解析】结合句意”电脑游戏设计者们为了吸引人们一直玩,经常设计有趣的电子游戏”可知,题干需要动词design的名词形式designer(设计者),且要用其复数形式。故空格处填designers.【答案】 designers

3. 【解析】分析句子结构及空格前的” even”可知,句意:即使雇主们规定了禁止员工在上班时间玩游戏,但很多员工仍沉溺于此。题干考查短语even ifthough,意为”即使”。故空格处填if though。【答案】if though

4.【解析】空格前的"addiction"是关键词,由此结合语境可知,题干考查的是短语"addiction to…",意为"沉迷于……",为固定用法。故空格处填to。

【答案】to

5.【解析】"________people work"是定语从句,place是定语从句的先行词,在从句中作地点状语,故用关系副词where作为引导词。故空格处填where。

【答案】where

6.【解析】结合语境可知,题干考查的是固定用法catch sb. doing sth.,意为"撞见或抓住某人正在做某事",其被动形式为sb.be caught doing sth.。故空格处填写playing,在从句中作宾语补足语。

【答案】playing

7.【解析】根据空格前的"their salary may be cut,and even"可知,此处表示比扣薪水更严重的惩罚,由此可知,题干考查的是bad的比较级形式。故空格处填worse。

【答案】worse

8.【解析】结合句意"一些公司只允许员工在压力比较大的时候玩电子游戏"可知,主语"the addicted players"与谓语动词allow之间存在被动关系;由全文时态可知,应用一般现在时。故空格处填are allowed。

【答案】are allowed

9.【解析】空格处引导从句,作"make sure"的宾语,且该从句不缺成分,故用that引导该宾语从句。故空格处填that。

【答案】that

10.【解析】结合句意及空格后的"own ways"可知,空格处应使用提示词的形容词性物主代词形式their。their own ways意为"他们自己的方法"。故空格处填their。#网

【答案】their

题组三 体验真题

1.looking;challenged

【解析】动词avoid后要加doing。此处表示避免直接看他的眼睛。用looking。根据语境可知,此处表示不直视他的眼睛,他就不会感到被挑战性。feel为系动词,表示“被挑战”,用过去分词challenged。

2、D【解析】句意回到水污染这个问题,我想让你看看2012年在澳大利亚所做的一项研究。在该句中,要注意区分现在分词和过去分词的用法。此处非谓语动词的逻辑主语是空格前面的名词a study,与conduct构成被动关系,所以根据原则应该用过去分词形式conducted 表示被动,A项和C项是主动关系要排除,同时B项不定式表示”将来”,而根据语意,此处为已经完成的动作,也可以排除,所以选D项。

3.D【解析】句意:(因为)那些书是一周多之前订的,现在随时有可能送到。Books和order是动宾关系,即order books/books are ordered,故用过去分词表示被动和完成,在此相当于原因状语从句because they were ordered…,故选D。

4.D【解析】句中的逻辑主语为children,与accompany之间为被动意义上的关系,故用过去分词作状语。句意:当有父母陪伴的时候,孩子们是允许进入体育馆的。故D正确。

 

 

 

高考英语

高考英语考点——ing分词

2019-12-17 9:25:55

高考英语

高考英语考点——情态动词

2019-12-19 9:54:58

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