高考英语考点——ing分词

考点解读

考向一 现在分词

现在分词的用法

1.作表语:现在分词表示主语所具有的特征或属性;过去分词表示主语所处的状态。

☛The situation is encouraging. 情况很受人鼓舞。

2.作定语:

(1)单独作定语,常放在被修饰的名词之前。

touching story /coming week /skilled worker / armed forces / boiled water

Barking dogs seldom bite. 乱叫的狗不咬人。

但某些过去分词(如concerned关切的/有关的,used旧的/用过的,given特定的/给予的,involved复杂的/涉及的)置于名词前后其意义不同。

☛a concerned look/the students concerned/

☛a used car/the textbook used.

(2)现在分词作定语,分词应放在被修饰的名词之后;表示正在进行的动作时,变为从句时要用进行时态和表示经常性的动作或现在的状态时,变为从句时要用一般时态;同被修辞的词(先行词)有逻辑上的主谓关系,在意义上相当于一个主动语态的定语从句。

☛Who is the man standing (= who is standing) by the door?

站在门边的人是谁。

☛They built a highway leading (= that/which leads) into the mountains.

一条通往山里的高速路。

(3)过去分词作定语时,分词应放在被修饰的名词之后;表示的动作发生在谓语动作之前/不确定;同被修辞的词(先行词)有逻辑上的动宾关系,在意义上相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。

☛The meeting held(=that/which was held) last week is very important.

上周举行的回忆是非常重要的。

(4)其他应注意:

① 若表示的动作此刻正在进行或同时进行,可用被动语态的进行时态(现在分词的被动语态)表示。

☛We must keep a secret of the things being discussed here. 我们必须保守正在讨论的事情。

② 若表示的是一个未来的动作,可用不定式的被动语态表示。

Please tell me the subjects to be discussed at the next meeting. 请告诉我在下次会议上讨论的主题。

③ 分词还可作非限制性定语(相当于非限制性定语从句),此时须和句子的其他部分用逗号隔开,试比较:

☛All my brothers living in Shanghai are scientists.=All my brothers, living in Shanghai, are scientists.

居住在上海的所有兄弟是科学家。

④ 现在分词短语作定语时,表示的动作不能先于谓语动作,也不可表示将来;一般不用现在分词的完成式作定语,故下列句子是错的:

☛Here is Mr. Li coming from Beijing. (应改为who has come from Beijing)

他是来自北京的李先生。

☛Those having finished their work can go home now. (应改为who have finished)

已经完成家庭作业的现在可以回家。

⑤ 系动词的现在分词形式不可用作后置定语,此时要用从句来表示。

☛Those being busy don’t have to go. (应改为Those who are busy don’t have to go.)

正在忙的人不必离开。

⑥ 不及物动词的过去分词不可用作后置定语,若要表示这个意思要用从句。

☛The lion died in this zoo the other day was a mother lion. (应改为which/that died)

前天死在公园的狮子是头母狮。

3、作宾补:

(1)常构成“感官动词/使役动词+宾语+doing sth/done”

☛I’m sorry to have kept you waiting for so long.

让你等在这好久很难过。

(2)现在分词做宾补表示动作与谓语同时发生或正在进行,强调动作过程;与宾语有着逻辑上的主谓关系,宾补一般为宾语所做的动作;过去分词做宾补表示动作完成,与宾语有着动宾关系且含有被动意义,宾语是过去分词表示的动作的承受者。&网

☛He watched the TV set carried out of the room.

他看从房间带出的电视。

☛Last year they had the house rebuilt.

去年他们重修了这座房子。

(3)变为被动结构,宾补就成了主语补足语,与谓语一起称为“复合谓语”。

☛We were kept waiting for quite a long time.

我们被等待了好久。

1.(2017·天津卷·单项填空)Around 13,500 new jobs were created during the period, _______the expected number of 12,000 held by market analysts.

A.having exceeded B. to exceed

C.exceeded D. exceeding

【参考答案】D

【答案解析】考查非谓语动词。 句意:在这期间, 大约创造13,500个新的工作,超过市场分析师持有的 12000的预期数量。分析全句可知,这里指前一件事情所带来自然而然的结果,故用现在分词作结果状语。故选D.

2.(2017·北京卷·单项填空)The national park has a large collection of wildlife, ________ from butterflies to elephants.

  1. A. ranging      B. range
  2. C. to range     D. ranged

【参考答案】A

【答案解析】考查非谓语动词。 range是不及物动词,意为“(在一定幅度内)变化”,此处作解释说明的状语,表主动。故答案选A。句意:国家动物园有大量野生动物, 从蝴蝶到大象都有。

2.(2017·江苏卷·单项填空) Many Chinese brands, ________their reputations over centuries,are facing new challenges from the modern market.

A. having developed         B. being developed

C. developed               D. developing

【参考答案】A

【答案解析】考查非谓语动词。many Chinese brands与develop是逻辑上的主谓关系,也是主动关系,再根据over centuries(数百年了)可知”发展的动作在“面临挑战”之前早就完成了,故用现在分词的完成式,故选A项。句意:许多已经发展了几个世纪的声誉的中国品牌,现在正面临着来自现代市场的新挑战。

考向二  动名词

一、动名词概述

1.动名词的一般式,表示的动作可以与谓语动词同时发生或前后。

☛We all enjoy listening to music.(同时发生) 我们所有的人都喜欢听音乐。

☛Do you remember meeting me there?(在谓语动词前发生) 你还记得见过他吗?

2.动名词的完成式表示在谓语动词之前完成的动作。

☛I regret not having been taken to the Great Wall when I was a child.

当我是个孩子的时候很遗憾没有被带到过长城。

☛She attended the party without being invited. 没有被邀请他就参加了这个晚会。

3.当一个动名词逻辑上的主语所表示的是这动作的承受者时,这个动名词一般要用被动形式。

☛This question is far from being settled.问题远没有解决。

4. 如果表示的动作在谓语表示的动作之前发生,有时需要用动名词的完成被动形式。

☛I don’t remember having ever been given a chance to try this method.

我不机器曾经给过他机会尝试这个方法。

二、动名词的用法

1.作主语

(1)谓语动词应用第三人称单数。

Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。

(2)it(形式主语)be no+n(use/ good/wonder…)+doing sth

there be no +n(point/doubt/signs/way…)+doing sth

☛It’s no use telling him about it,it’s too late already.

已经太晚了,所以告诉他没有用。

(3)作主语动名词与不定式的区别:

① 动名词作主语表示抽象的动作,不与特定的动作执行者有关;不定式作主语表示具体的动作或行为,与特定的动作执行者有关。

☛He realized that to go on like this was no use.(具体)

他意识到像这样继续没用。

☛It’s no use crying over split milk.(抽象)

因抛洒的牛奶哭泣没用。

特别提醒:表语是动名词,主语也用动名词;表语是不定式,主语也用不定式。

② 动名词和不定式作主语,都可用形式主语it,动名词或不定式放在句尾时用动名词,不用不定式。

it’s no use/good doing …

it’s a waste of time doing …

但在it’s important /necessary /advisable/essential … 中,只用不定式。

☛It’s no use going there today; he won’t be at home.

今天去哪没用,因为不在家。

☛It’s a waste of time arguing about it.

和他争论时浪费时间。

2.作表语

(1)用来解释说明主语的内容。

☛Their job is building houses.

他们的工作是建房子。

(2)作表语动名词与不定式的区别:

动名词作表语表示抽象的行为,习惯;不定式作表语表示具体的特别是动作。

☛My favourite sport is swimming.

我最喜欢的运动游泳。

(3)动名词与现在分词的区别:

作表语: 动名词作表语相当于名词,说明主语的含义及内容,主语与表语互换位置不影响句子的基本含义,不可用副词来修饰;现在分词作表语相当于形容词,说明主语的特征,性质,状态等,主语与表语不可互换位置,可用very/quite等副词来修饰。

☛Our duty is serving the people heart and soul. 我的职责是全心全意为人民服务。

作定语:现在分词表示所修辞的名词的动作,逻辑上是主谓关系;动名词表示被修辞的名词的作用,目的和用途等,无主谓关系。

A sleeping baby=a baby who is sleeping.

作主语:动名词可做主语,现在分词不可。

3.作宾语

(1)vt+doing sth

☛Mary is considering changing her job.

玛丽正在考虑换工作。

【注意】某些动词后接两种结构,意义不同。

remember/ forget/ regret/ try /mean /stop/go on/can’t help/ be afraid(of)/be sure (of)to do doingsth

☛I forgot to close the door before I left the room.

在我离开房间前,忘记关门。

☛I forgot having closed the door.

我忘记关门。

(2)s+v+it+n/adj+doing sth(it作形式宾语)

I consider it a waste of time arguing about it.

(3)【insist on / object to / feel like /look forward to / devote to / get (be) used to … 】+doing sth

☛He insisted on seeing us home.

他坚持看我们的家。

☛They all objected to putting the meeting off.

所有的人对法对取消会议。

(4)S+have+n(difficulty/trouble/problem/a good time/a hard time/fun)+(in)+doing sth/with sth

☛I have some difficulty (in) finishing my work in time.

在及时完成家庭作业方面我有困难。

4.作定语

动名词作定语表示被修饰名词的用途,无逻辑上的主谓关系;现在分词作定语,表示被修饰名词的动作行为,有逻辑上的主谓关系。

singing competition  歌咏比赛  swimming pool 游泳池

1.(2018·北京卷·单项填空) _________ along the old Silk Road is an interesting and rewarding experience

A.TravelB. TravelingC. Having traveled    D. Traveled

【参考答案】B

【答案解析】考查动名词。句意:沿着丝绸之路旅行是一次既有趣又有益的经历。“____ along the old Silk Road”做主语,要用动名词,故B选项正确。

1.___________ the difference between the two research findings will be one of the worst mistakes you make.

A.Ignore B. Ignoring

C.Ignored D. Having ignored

【参考答案】B

【答案解析】句意:忽视这两项研究结果的差异将会是你所犯的最严重的错误之一 。分析句子结构可知,句子缺少主语,ignore 的逻辑主语是you,两者是主谓关系,因此用动名词作主语,故选B。

题组一 基础过关

I.用所给词的正确形式填空

1.A build-it-yourself solar still(蒸馏器) is one of the best ways to obtain _________(drink)water in areas where the liquid is not readily available.

2.We were respectful of craft(技艺)and focused on ______(dig) into the characters we were going to play.

3.________ (work) for two days,Steve managed to finish his report on schedule.

4.The park was full of people,________ (enjoy) themselves in the sunshine.

5.In addition to their simple beauty,what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their ability to“air condition”a house without ________(use)electric equipment.

6.Listening to music at home is one thing,going to hear it ________ (perform) live is quite another.

7.Keep ________ (hold)your position for a while. It helps develop your strength and flexibility.

8.I got to the office earlier that day,________ (catch) the 7:30 train from Paddington.

II.单项填空

1.After a long absence, I went back to college, _______ to pick up where I’d left off.

A.hoping B.hope C.to hope D. hoped

2._______of their bad habits,the boys switched from being dependent on their parents to _______ for others.

A.Having rid; sacrificing B.To rid; sacrifice

C.Rid; sacrificing D.Having been rid; sacrifice

3._______with the passengers on the missing plane, their families were sitting in front of the television all day and all night, ____________anxiously for the latest news.

A.Concerned; waiting B.Concerning; waiting

C.Concerned; waited D.Concerning; waited

4._____ at the clock on the wall, Alice found that she was late.

A.To glance B.Glancing

C.Glance D.Glanced

5._______ the right decision _______ the future is probably an important thing we will ever do in our lives.

A.Making; concerned B.Make; concerningTo make;C.concerned D. Making; concerning

6_______children to stay in touch with the nature, I think, will benefit them in the long run.

A.Encouraged B.Encourage

C.Encouraging D.To have encouraged

7.It is no good completely _______students from surfing the Internet.

A.banned B.banning

C.to ban D. having banned

8.The recent survey shows that lack of parents’ love is the leading factor (因素)that results in a teenager_______  in computer games.

A.losing B.lost

C.being lost D.to be lost

9.When Mr. Liu returned from a long vacation, there was a pile of documents_______ for him in his office.

A.waited B.to wait

C.waiting D.being waited

10.The worse working conditions we are looking forward to________ must have attracted the local government’s attention.

A.see improved B.seeing to improve

C.see improving D.seeing improved

题组二 能力提升

阅读下面短文,在空白处填入 1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

“The only female giant panda in Britain  1 (believe) to be pregnant,” Edinburgh Zoo said Thursday. The zoo said, “Tian Tian is being  2 (close) monitored, but it’s unclear  3 she will give birth. It’s hard to predict exactly and the panda breeding (繁殖) season can last until late September.”

Tian Tian and male panda Yang Guang, who are both 14,  4 (arrive) in Edinburgh on a decade-long loan from China in 2011 and are  5 only giant pandas in Britain. Tian Tian, or Sweetie, has been pregnant several  6 (time) before in the U. K. but has never given birth.

Giant pandas have difficulty breeding and their pregnancies are very difficult  7 (follow). The animals also experience “pseudo-pregnancies (伪怀孕)”, during  8 their behavior and hormonal (生理的) changes indicate they are pregnant even when they are not.

The zoo’s statement came after the Edinburgh Evening Nevus used the Freedom of Information Act to obtain communication between the zoo and Scottish government  9 (show) that Tian Tian had been artificially inseminated and could give birth as early as this week. In a July 25 email, Iain Valentine, panda  10 (direct) at the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, said he thought Tian Tian was about 30 days away from giving birth.

题组三 体验真题

1.(2017·天津卷)The hospital has recently obtained new medical equipment, ________ more patients to be treated.

A. being allowed      B. allowing

C. having allowed      D. allowed

2.(2016·北京卷)Newly-built wooden cottages line the street, ________ the old town into a dreamland.

A.turn                 B. turning

C.to turn              D. turned

3.(2016·天津卷)The cooling wind swept through out bedroom windows, ________ air conditioning unnecessary.

A.making            B. to make

C.made            D. being made

4.(2014·湖南卷)____your own needs and styles of communication is as important as learning to

convey your affection and emotions.

A.Understanding B. To be understood

C. Being understood Having understood

5.(2013·福建卷)________ basic first-aid techniques will help you respond quickly to emergencies.

A.Known   B. Having known

C.Knowing   D. Being known

6.(2013·浙江卷)_________how others react to the book you have just read creates an added pleasure.

A.Hearing          B. Hear

C.Having heard      D. To be hearing

题组一 基础过关

I.用所给词的正确形式填空

1.drinking 2.digging 3.Having worked 4.enjoying

5.using 6.being performed 7.holding  8.having caught

II.单项填空

1.A

【解析】考查非谓语。根据句子结构可知,句子缺少状语。句子的主语I与hope之间是主动关系;此处用现在分词作伴随状语。句意:一长段缺席之后,我回到了大学,希望从我离开的地方学起。故选A。

2.A

【解析】考查非谓语。句意:通过摆脱坏习惯后,男孩们从依赖父母的人变成了可以为他人牺牲的人。the boys是rid的执行者,而且摆脱坏刁惯发生于变成了之前,所以要用现在分词的完成时态; switch from .. to.指…….. to是介词,后跟doing。故选A。

3.A

【解析】考查非谓语。concerned是形容词,意思是“关切的;忧虑的,担心的”,在此用形容词作状语,指“家属们对于失联飞机上的乘客都很担心”;主语their families与wait之间是主动关系,所以用现在分词作伴随状语,指“等待着最新消息”。故选A。

4.B

【解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:瞥了一眼墙上的表,爱丽丝发现她迟到了。glance与句子的主语有逻辑上的主谓关系,且在意思上表示主动意义,应用现在分词的主动形式,故选B。

5.D

【解析】考查非谓语动词。由句子结构可知,make the right decision是该句的主语,应用其-ing形式;concerning是介词,表示 “关于……”,故选D项。

6.C

【解析】考查非谓语动词。分析句子结构可知,I think是插入语,前面为主语,此处泛指“鼓励孩子们与自然保持联系”这一行为,应使用ing分词。故选C。

7.B

【解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:完全禁止学生上网是没有好处的。该句属于”It+is+名词/形容词(no good/no use/useless)+doing…”句型,It为形式主语,故选B项。

8.C

【解析】考查非谓语。句意:最近的调查显示,缺少父母的爱是导致青少年在电脑游戏中迷失的主要因素。A teenager is lost in computer games.指“青少年迷失在电脑游戏中”,其放在短语result in后面用动名词形式作宾语。故选C。

9.C

【解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:当刘先生渡完长假回来,办公室里有一大堆文件在等着他处理。在there be句型中,名词documents和wait是主动关系,所以用现在分词做定语,表示正存在的状态。故选C。

10.D

【解析】考查非谓语。句意:我们期待着看到得以改善的糟糕的工作条件,一定是引起 了了当地政府的关注。先行词The worse working conditions 后面跟了定语从句,谓语部分是are looking forwardto, to是介词,后面跟动名词; see的逻辑宾语是省去的引导词that或which,用过去分词improved作宾补,指“期待着看到糟糕的工作条件得以改善的”。故选D。

题组二 能力提升

【文章大意】来自英国爱丁堡动物园的消息,英国唯一的雌性大熊猫被怀孕了,在不久的未来就要生小宝宝了。

1.is believed

【解析】考查时态和语态、主谓一致。句子最后一句那个主语是The only female giant panda,是单数;与believe之间是被动关系;根据后面的内容可知,此处用一般现在时态。故填is believed。

2.closely

【解析】考查副词。此处指“被密切监视”,用副词修饰谓语动词。故填closely。

3.when

【解析】考查连词。句意:还不确定她什么时候生小宝宝。此处it是形式主语,when引起真正的主语从句。故填when。

4.arrived

【解析】考查时态。根据后面的时间状语“in 2011”可知,句子用一般过去时态。故填arrived。

5.the

【解析】考查冠词。“the only…”指“唯一的人或者物”,是固定搭配。故填the。

6.times

【解析】考查名词。此处time是“次数”的意思,several修饰可数名词的复数形式。故填times。

7.to follow

【解析】考查非谓语。此处运用了“sth.+be+adj.+to do”句式。故填to follow。

8.which

【解析】考查连词。此处指非限制性定语从句,先行词是“pseudo-pregnancies”,引导词which指代先行词,作介词during的宾语。故填which。

9.showing

【解析】考查非谓语。句子中有谓语came,此处是非谓语在句中作状语。故填showing。

10.director

【解析】考查名词。此处指在“the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland”负责管理熊猫的主任。故填director。

题组二 体验真题

1.B

【解析】考查非谓语动词。“医院引进新的医疗设备和更多的病人得到治疗”之间是主动的关系,因此用v-ing形式。此处用现在分词短语作结果状语,故选B项。句意:医院最近引进了新的医疗设备,从而使更多的病人得到治疗。

2.B

【解析】考查现在分词表伴随状况。句意:新建的木屋林立在街道的两旁,使古镇变成了一个梦幻之地。turn的逻辑主语是cottages,两者是主动关系,故用现在分词,表示主动和伴随,故选B。

3.A

【解析】句意:冷风从我们卧室的窗户吹进来,使得没有必要开空调了。前面的事情造成后面的结果,用现在分词作结果状语,表示顺理成章的结果。不定式也可以作结果状语,但是那是预料不到的结果。故选A。

4.A

【解析】考查非谓语动词用法。不定式(短语)或动名词(短语)均可作主语,区别在于不定式常表示将来,是特指;而动名词表示一般情况,是泛指。而本句指的是普遍现象,属泛指,故用动名词较好。句意:理解你自身的需要及交际风格,同时会表达你的感情和情绪是一样重要。故A正确。

5.C

【解析】考查非谓语动词的用法。动名词在本句中作主语,此处表示一般情况,用一般式;having known 是完成式,表示动作已经完成或先于谓语动词发生。句意: 懂得一些基本的急救技巧将有助于你对紧急情况作出快速应对。故选C。

6.A

【解析】考查非谓语动词。在该句中,要注意区分现在分词和动名词的用法。根据句子结构夫口,此处ceate前面的主语应该是 how others react to the book you have justread,其中you have justread是定语从句修饰the book,所以此处空格中应该用动名词形式,故选A项。

 

 

 

 

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