高考英语考点——动词不定式

考点解读

动词不定式

考向一 不定式的作用

1.作主语:不定式作主语时,谓语用单数。往往用it 作形式主语,把不定式放在谓语后面。

It took us two hours to finish the job.

2.作宾语

(1)动词+不定式。

☞He managed to escape from the fire.

☞I find it hard to get along with him.(it 作形式宾语)

(2)动词+疑问词+to,"特殊疑问句+不定式"相当于名词,作宾语。

☞I don’t know what to do next/ how to do it next.

误区提醒:不定式短语作宾语时,如果还带有宾语补足语,往往把不定式短语放在宾语补足语之后,用it 作形式宾语。

3.作宾语补足语

(1)动词+宾语+不定式(to do )。

☞He warned me to be careful.

注意:可以用动词不定式作宾补的动词有:ask,tell,order,want,get,would like,like,advise,invite,allow,help,wish,warn,expect,would prefer,encourage。

(2)表见解、看法的动词结构可为:动词+宾语+ to be 的不定式结构。

☞We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class.

The book is believed to be useful.(被动语态)

(3)There +不定式。

We didn’t expect there to be so many people there. 我们没料到会有那么多人在那里。

(4)在动词feel (一感),hear, listen to(二听),have, let, make(三让),notice, see, watch, observe, look at(五看)(即:吾看三室两厅一感觉)等后面的补足语中,不定式不带to,但变为被动语态后,必须带to。

☞They saw the boy fall off the tree.

(5)help后面作宾语补足语的不定式可以带to,也可以不带to。

☞I often help him (to) clean the room.

☞I helped him (to) find his things.

1.(2018·新课标III卷·语法填空)Once his message was delivered, he allowed me ____70____(stay)and watch.

【参考答案】

【答案解析】考查非谓语动词。此处allow sb to do允许某人做某事,动词不定式作宾补,应该用to stay。

2.(2018天津卷·单项填空)I need a new passport so I will have to have my photographs___________.

A.taking B. taken

C.being taken D. take

【参考答案】B

【答案解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:我需要一 个新护照, 所以我将不得不拍照片。本题考查非谓语动词作宾语补足语,宾语my photograph与补足语之间为被动关系,故用过去分词作宾语补足语。C项表示正在进行。故选B。

3.(2017·新课标卷I·语法填空)Fat and salt are very important parts of a diet. They are required    63    (process) the food that we eat, to recover from injury and for several other bodily functions.

【参考答案】to process

【答案解析】考查不定式。句意:他们被要求加工食物。require表示"要求",require sb. to do sth.表示"要求某人做某事",被动形式为"sb. be required to do sth."(某人被要求做某事)。故填to process。

4.作定语

不定式作定语,修饰名词或代词,不定式和它所修饰的名词之间有逻辑上的主谓关系、动状关系、同位关系或动宾关系。不定式通常要放在这些被修饰的词后。

I have a lot of work to do.(动宾关系)

He is looking for a room to live in.(动状关系)

He is the first person to think of the idea.(主谓关系)

He has got a chance to go abroad.(同位关系)

5.作状语

作状语,表示目的、结果、原因等,有时还有一些固定搭配的不定式短语,如in order to,so as to,so… as to,such…as to,enough to,too…to等。

(1)作目的状语,just to,only to(仅仅为了),in order to,so as to,so(such)… as to…(如此……以便……)

☞He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。

(2)作结果状语,表事先没有预料到的,要放在句子后面。

☞He hurried to the post office only to find it was closed.

(3)作原因状语。

☞We were very excited to hear the news.

(4)作条件状语。

☞To turn to the left, you could find a post office.

6.作表语

不定式可放在be动词后面,构成表语。

☞The question is how to put it into practice.

1.(2018·新课标I卷·语法填空) You don’t have to run fast or for long   62   (see) the benefit.

【参考答案】to see

【答案解析】考查不定式作目的状语。你不必跑地太快或时间太长就能看到它的好处。此处不定式作目的状语,故填tosee。

2.(2017·新课标卷II·短文改错)When summer came(comes), they will invite their students pick the vegetables!

【参考答案】 pick改为to pick

【答案解析】本向出现了两个动词,所以要将第二个动词变为非谓语动词,又根据句意:摘新鲜的蔬菜是日的,6所以把第一个动词变为to do不定式的形式表目的,故将pick前加上to。

3.(2017·浙江卷·语法填空)Sixteen years earlier  (early), Pahlsson had removed the diamond ring    61   (cook) a meal.

【参考答案】to cook

【答案解析】考查动词不定式。一个句子不能出现双重谓语,所以此处要用不定式作目的状语。故填to cook。

考向二 不定式的时态和语态

1.不定式的时态

(1)现在时:有时与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,有时发生在谓语动词的动作之后。

☞He seems to know this.

(2)完成时:表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。

☞I’m sorry to have given you so much trouble.

☞He seems to have caught a cold.

(3)进行时:表示动作正在进行,与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。

☞He seems to be eating something.

(4)完成进行时:表示动作从过去某个时间开始,一直延续到现在,并有可能持续下去。

☞She is known to have been working on the problem for many years.

2.不定式的语态

当不定式的逻辑主语是其动作的承受者时,就用被动式。

He was seen to enter the hall.

考向三 省to 的动词不定式

一、使役动词后省略to的情况

在let, make, have等使役动词后用作宾语补足语的不定式必须省略to。如:

☞My mother wouldn’t let me go to the film. 我妈妈不会让我去看电影的。

☞I don’t like milk, but mother made me drink it. 我不喜欢牛奶,可是母亲强迫我喝。

二、感官动词后省略to的情况

在感觉动词后用作宾语补足语的不定式必须省略to。如:

☞I watched her get into the car. 我看着她上了车。

☞I saw the woman enter a bank. 我看见这个女人进了一家银行。

☞We often hear her sing this song. 我们经常听到她唱这首歌。

☞Did you notice her leave the house? 她离开屋子你注意到了吗?

三、动词help后省略to的情况

在动词help后用作宾语或宾语补足语的不定式可以不带to。如:

☞Can I help (to) carry this heavy box? 我可以帮忙扛这个重箱子吗?

☞Mother helped me (to) do my homework. 妈妈帮助我做作业

四、why (not)…后省略to的情况

在why (not)…?之后的不定式不能带to。如:

☞Why go with him? 为什么要同他一起去?

☞Why not ask the teacher? 为什么不去问问老师?

☞Why not try to expand your story into a novel? 你怎么不把你的故事扩展成小说呢?

五、介词except / but后省略to的情况

用作介词except, but宾语的不定式有时带to,有时不带to。其大致原则是:若其前出现了动词 do,其后的不定式通常不带 to;若其前没有出现动词 do,则其后的不定式通常带 to。如:

☞I had no choice but to wait. 除了等,我没有别的选择。

☞He wanted nothing but to stay there. 他只想留在那儿。

☞It had no effect except to make him angry. It had no effect except to make him angry.

除惹他生气外,没产生任何效果。

☞She can do everything except cook. 除了做饭之外她什么都会。

六、主语带do表语省略to的情况

当主语部分有动词do的某种形式时,用作表语的不定式可以省略to。如:

☞All you do now is (to) complete the form. 你现在要做的只是把这张表填好。

☞The only thing to do now is (to) go on. 前进是现在唯一的出路。

☞What I’ll do is 我要做的就是告诉她真相。

七、并列不定式省略to的情况

当两个或多个作用相同的不定式并列时,通常只需在第一个不定式前用to,其余不定式前的to可以省略。如:☞He told me to stay there and wait for him. 他叫我在那儿等他。

☞I’m really puzzled what to think or say. 我真不知该怎么想怎么说。

☞It is easier to persuade people than (to) force them. 说服人容易,强迫人难。

但是,如果两者有对比关系,则后面不定式前的to不可省略。如:

☞To try and fail is better than not to try at all. 尝试而失败总比不尝试好。

八、省略不定式是否保留to

在一定的上下文中,为了避免重复,有时不定式可以省略,但通常保留不定式符号to。如:

☞I shall go if I want to. 如果我想去就去。

☞ "Don’t be late." "I’ll try not to." "不要来晚了。""我尽量不来晚。"

☞Don’t go till I tell you to. 等我叫你走你再走。

They knew her very well. They had seen her __________(grow)up from childhood.

【参考答案】grow

【答案解析]】see后接省去to的不定式傲宾语补足语。此类动词主要有感观动词和使役动词see, watch, notice、observe, took at, find, feel, listen to, have, make,let等。

 

题组一 基础过关

单项填空

1.______ in Northern Europe rose steadily in the third quarter of 2016, following a 0.1 percent increase in the previous quarter.

A.Tourist spending B.Tourist spent

C.Tourist spend D.Tourist spends

2.It’s natural for there ________ a generation gap between parents and their children.

A.being B.having been

C.to be D.to have been

3.It’s important for the figures ________ regularly.

A.to be updated B.to have been updated

C.to update D.to have updated

4.It’s interesting ________ the children __________there.

A.watching; playing B.to watch ; to play

C.to watch; playing D. watching ; play

5.______ exactly what was wrong with him, the doctors gave him a complete examination.

A.To discover B.Discovering

C.Discovered D.Having been discovered

6.Many parents don’t take their kids’ interests and ages into consideration, only ________ "More haste, less speed" — their curiosity is being killed.

A.finding B.having found

C.to find D. find

7.My grandma, living separately in the country, is just content to sit comfortably in front of TV each evening, happy ________ Chinese traditional opera programs.

A.to be watching B. watching

C.to watch D.to be watched

8.How pleasant the picture is to _________!

A.look at B.being looked at

C.looking at D.be looked at

9.Tom was proud ________ captain of our school football team.

A.to choose B.to be chosen

C.to have been chosen D.to have chosen

10.A lot of employees at the company said Eric was impossible________, and indeed he was tough.

A.dealing with B.dealt with

C.to deal with D.to be dealt with

题组二 能力提升

阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。

In much of Asia, especially the so-called "rice bowl" cultures of China, Japan, Korea,   1    Vietnam, food is usually eaten with chopsticks.

Chopsticks are usually two long, thin pieces of wood or bamboo. They can also be made of plastic, animal bone or metal. Sometimes chopsticks are quite artistic. Truly elegant chopsticks might    2    (make) of gold and silver with Chinese characters. Skilled workers also combine various hardwoods and metal    3    (create) special designs.

The Chinese have used chopsticks for five thousand years. People probably cooked their food in large pots,   4   (use) twigs(树枝)to remove it. Over time,   5   the population grew, people began cutting food into small pieces so it would cook more quickly.

Food in small pieces could be eaten easily with twigs which    6   (gradual) turned into chopsticks.

Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius,   7   lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C., influenced the   8    (develop) of chopsticks. Confucius believed knives would remind people of killings and   9   (be) too violent for use at the table.

Chopsticks are not used everywhere in Asia. In India, for example, most people traditionally eat    10    their hands.

 

题组三 体验真题

1.(2016·北京卷·单项填空)_____________ it easier to get in touch with us, you’d better keep this card at hand.

A.Made    B. Make

C.Making    D. To make

2.(2016·全国新课标卷III·语法填空)Skilled workers also combine various hardwoods and metal   43  (create) special designs.

3.(2014·天津卷)Anxiously, she took the dress out of the package and tried it on, only _________ it didn’t fit

A.to find           B. found

C.finding           D. having found

4.(2014·山东卷) It’s standard practice for a company like this one______ a security officer.

A.employed     B. being employed

C.to employ     D. employs

5.(2014·四川卷)— I hope to take the computer course.

— Good idea. ____ more about it, visit this website.

A.To find out               B. Finding out

C.To be finding out       D. Having found out

 

题组一 基础过关

单项填空

1.A 【解析】考查非谓语动词。根据句意"在2016年的第三季度北欧的旅游支出稳步上升,比上一季度增  长0.1%。" 和句子结构可知, "____in Northern Europe"是句子的主语,所以动词spend该用ing形式(即动名词),而Tourist是动名词的逻辑主语,所以A项(Tourist spending游客花销/旅游支出)的结构正确且符合语境之意。故选A。

2.C 【解析】考查非谓语动词。it是形式主语,to do(动词不定式)作真正的主语。构成"It is +adj. to do "结构。

3.A 【解析】考查不定式短语作主语的用法。句意:数据定期更新很重要。题干属于"It+be+adj.+for sb./sth.+不定式"结构,该结构中,"It"为形式主语,不定式为真正的主语。update与the figures为动宾关系,所以不定式用被动形式,而且此处陈述的是一般情况,不涉及谓语动作与非谓语动作的先后次序,故用不定式的一般被动式作主语,所以A项切题。

4.C 【解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:看到孩子们在那儿玩非常有趣。由语境可知,孩子们正在那边玩。该题考查watch sb. doing sth.结构,意为"看到某人正在做某事",故第二个空填playing。doing做主语,表示经常性的动作。to do做主语,表示某一次的行为。由语境可知,该处并不是经常性的动作。故要用to do作主语。C选项切题。

5.A 【解析】考查非谓语。句意:为了准确地发现他出了什么问题,医生给了他一个完整的检查。此句中用动词不定式作目的状语。故选A。
6.C 【解析】考查非谓语动词。I句意:很多父母没有考虑孩子的兴趣和年龄,结果发现”欲速则不达”
他们的好奇心正在被扼杀。使用only-不定式作预料之外的结果。故选C。

7.C  【解析】考查不定式。句意:独自住在村里的奶奶,每晚只是喜欢舒适地坐在电视机前,快乐地观看中国传统戏剧节目。此处源于词组be happy to do sh."乐意做某事",该空处为形容词词组作状语,修饰主语的状态。故选C。

8.A  【解析】该句是感叹句,解题时应将其还原为陈述句:the pictures is pleasant to… 该结构中不定式作状语修饰作表语的形容词pleasant,且look at与句子主语是逻辑上的动宾关系,sb/sth is adj to do sth是固定句式,用不定时的主动表被动,选A项。

9.C  【解析】考查非谓语。句意:Tom非常自豪被选为我们校足球队的队长。根据句意可知要运用被动语态,用现在完成时的被动语态表示此事已经发生,且有一定影响。故选C。

10.C  【解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:公司里的许多员工说,对付Eric是不可能的。他确实很难对付。hard, difficult, easy, impossible等形容词作表语时,其后的不定式如果与主语之间是逻辑上的动宾关系,通常用不定式的主动形式,故选to deal with。

题组二 能力提升

【语篇解读】本文介绍了筷子的材质与中国使用筷子的悠久历史及文化内涵。

1.and

【解析】考查并列连词。分析句子结构及语境可知,Vietnam与空前的"China, Japan, Korea"之间是并列关系,故填并列连词and。

2.be made

【解析】考查被动语态。此处指真正雅致的筷子可能是由金和银做成的。根据make与句子主语Truly elegant  chopsticks之间是动宾关系及空前的” might”可知,此处应填be made。

3.to create

【解析】考查非谓语动词。熟练的工人也会把各种各样的硬木和金属组合起来以创作独特的设计。根据句意可知此处应用不定式作目的状语。

4.using

【解析】考查非谓语动词。use与其逻辑主语People之间是主谓关系,故此处用现在分词作状语。

5.as/when

【解析】考查状语从句。随着人口的增长或当人口增长时,人们开始把食物切成小片。根据句意和句子结构可知,空处引导状语从句,表示"随着"或"当……时",故填as或when。

6.gradually

【解析】考查副词。应用副词修饰动词,故用 gradually。

7.who

【解析】考查定语从句。分析句子结构可知,空处在此引导非限制性定语从句,先行词为Confucius,且关系词在从句中作主语,故填who。

8.development

【解析】考查名词。根据空前的"the"及空后的"of"可知,此处应填名词development。

9.were

【解析】考查时态和主谓一致。根据句中的"believed"可知,此处描述的是过去的情况,应用一般过去时;从句主语为knives,谓语动词应用复数。故填were。

10.with

【解析】考查介词。此处指大部分人用手吃饭,故填with。

题组三 体验真题

1.D 【解析】考查不定式作目的状语。句意:为了更方便地联系到我们,你最好随身带着这张卡片。根据句意可知,这里是目的状语,表目的用动词不定式,故选D。

2.to create

【解析】考查不定式作目的状语。技术娴熟的工人会把各种各样的硬质木材和金属结合起来,以创造出特殊风格的筷子。这里用不定式表目的,故填to create。

3.A 【解析】句意:她焦急地从包里拿出裙子试穿,结果却发现不合身。only +动词不定式,表示意想不到的结果。found 是过去分词,常常表示被动和完成的含义; finding 是现在分词,常常表示主动和进行;having found是ing的完成式,表示动作发生在先。

4.C 【解析】it是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的动词不定式。句意:像这样的一个公司雇用一名保安是惯例。故答案选C。

5.A 【解析】由结构判断此处是非谓语短语位于句首表示目的,现在分词不做目的状语,排除CD选项。To be doing强调正在进行,不能做目的状语,故答案选A。句意:—我希望选修计算机课程。—好主意。要想多了解计算机情况的话,去这个网站看看。

高考英语

高考英语考点——非谓语动词

2019-12-13 10:20:21

高考英语

高考英语考点——ing分词

2019-12-17 9:25:55

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