高考英语考点——动词的被动语态

考点解读

【命题解读】

动词的语态是历年高考的重点,也是高考的必考点。高考主要以语法填空、短文改错等形式对被动语态这一考点进行考查,动词的语态在语法填空和短文改错中是必考点。

【命题预测】

预计2019年高考语态仍将是高考考查的重点和难点所在,考查形式仍以语法填空和短文改错题型为主,很可能会与动词的时态及其他的语法点结合起来进行考查。

【复习建议】  

  1. 掌握被动语态的基本时态变化;
  2. 掌握被动语态的特殊结构形式;
  3. 掌握不能用被动语态的几种情况;
  4. 掌握主动形式表示被动意义的情况。

知识网络

考向一  被动语态的基本时态变化    

被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式,被动语态由be+过去分词构成,be随时态的变化而变化。以do为例,各种时态的被动语态形式为:

被动语态的特殊结构形式

(1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。

The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter.

(2)有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。

His mother gave him a present for his birthday.

可改为 He was given a present by his mother for his birthday.

(3)当"动词+宾语+宾语补足语"结构变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的主语,其余不动。

Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette.

可改为The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.

(4)在使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe等后面不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式to要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加to。

Someone saw a stranger walk into the building.

可改为A stranger was seen to walk into the building.

(5)有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如"动词+介词","动词+副词"等,也可以用于被动结构,但要把它们看作一个整体,不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。

The meeting is to be put off till Friday.

1.(2018·北京卷·单项填空)A rescue worker risked his life saving two tourists who _________ in the mountains for two days.

A.are trapping B. have been trapped

C.were trapping D. had been trapped

【答案】D

【解析】考查语态和时态。句意:-个救援人员冒着生命危险挽救了两个被困在山里两天的旅游者。“who__in the mountains for two days是定语从句,修饰two tourists, two tourists和trap之间是被动关系,该空应用被动语态。由risked可知,营救人员救游客是过去的事情,被困两天发生在营救人员救了他们之前,即“过去的过去”,该空应用过去完成时态。综上,D选项正确。

2.(2018天津卷·单项填空)My washing machine ___________this week, so I have to wash my clothes by hand.

A.was repaired B. is repaired

C.is being repaired D. has been repaired

【答案】C

【解析】考查时态和语态。句意:这周我的洗衣机正在修,所以我不得不手洗衣服。根据后句so I have to wash my clothes by hand.可知,洗衣机正在修,故用现在进行时态的被动语态。故选C。#网

3.(2017·北京卷·单项填空)In the 1950s in the USA, most families had just one phone at home, and wireless phones _______ yet.

A.haven’t invented   B. haven’t been invented

C.hadn’t invented     D. hadn’t been invented

【答案】D

【解析】句意:在美国20世纪50年代的时候,大多数的家庭家里只有一部电话,并且无线电话还根本没有发明出来。根据句意可知用被动语态,排除A和C,事情发生在过去,与现在无关,不用现在完成时,排除B,故选D,过去完成时的被动语态。

4.(2017天津卷·单项填空)Nowadays, cycling, along with jogging and swimming, ___________ as one of the best all-round forms of exercise.

A.regard     B. is regarded

C.are regarded     D. regards

【答案】B

【解析】句意:现在骑自行车、慢跑和游泳被认为是最全面的锻炼方式之一。根据动词短语regard…as… (把……看做……)和句意确定应该用被动语态,排除A和D;由介词短语along with连接的三个名词作主语,谓语动词应该就前一致,即用单数,排除C。故选B。

5.(2017·新课标I卷·语法填空)When fat and salt    64    (remove) from food, the food tastes as if is missing something.

【答案】are removed

【解析】考查被动语态。句意:当脂肪和盐分从食物中被去掉。分析可知fat,salt和move之间是被动关系,脂肪和盐分是两种东西,且是被人们去掉,所以用被动语态。故填are removed。

考向二 不能用被动语态的几种情况:

1.(1)所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态。

(2)表示状态的谓语动词,如:last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit等。

(3)表示归属的动词,如have、own、belong to等。

(4)表示"希望、意图"的动词,如:wish、want、hope、like、love、hate等。

(5)宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。

考向三 主动形式表被动意义的情况:

(1)系动词没有被动形式,但有些表示感受、感官的连系动词feel,sound,taste,book,feel等在主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被动意义。

(2)当cut,sell,read,write,fill,cook,lock,wash,drive,keep等词带状语修饰语时;

(3)当break out、take place、shut off、turn off、work out等动词词组表示"发生、关闭、制定"等意思时;

(4)want,require,need后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。

(5)be worth doing用主动形式表示被动含义。

(6)在"be + 形容词 + to do"中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。

另外:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。

As time went on, Einstein’s theory __________ to be correct.

A.proved B.proves

C.is proved D.was proved

【答案】 A

【解析】句意:随着时间的推移,爱因斯坦的理论证明是正确的。prove”” 证明是”,这里用作连系动词,要用主动形式表被动含义,故选A。

【巧学妙记】

题组一 基础过关

用被动语态的形式完成下列句子

1.Don’t be nervous, and they will tell you where to sit.

→Don’t be nervous, and you ____________ ____________ ____________ where to sit by them.

2.People refers to California as the Golden State.

→California ____________ ____________ ____________ as the Golden State by people.

3.In order to stop the air pollution, the government have taken a lot of measures.

→A lot of measures ____________ ____________ ____________ by the government in order to stop the air pollution.

4.We are discussing how to spend the summer holidays now.

→How to spend the summer holidays ____________ ____________ ____________ now.

5.Miss Li can make her class lively and interesting, so her students respect her.

→Miss Li can make her class lively and interesting, so she ____________ ____________ by her students.

6.Two whales have ____________ ____________ (wash) up on the beach.

7.Tom was caught smoking in school, and he ____________ ____________ (punish) for it.

8.If you leave the club, you ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ (not allow) back in.

题组二 能力提升

I.单项填空

1.I got caught in the rain on my way home and my new suit_________.

A.has ruined B.had ruined

C.had been ruined D.has been ruined

2.Now all the employees except the manager _________ to work online at home.

A.encourages B.encourage

C.is encouraged D. are encouraged

3.He __________ everywhere for materials and finally his efforts paid off. The medicine __________ to be very effective.

A.looked; was proved B.explored; was proved

C.sought; has proved D.hunted; was proving

4.—What’s that noise?

— Oh, I forget to tell you. The new machine________.

A.is testing B. was being tested

C.is being tested D. has been tested

5.The plan for Xiongan New Area ________ officially on April 1,2017.

A.announced B.was announced

C.announces D.is announced

6.Ann ______ a certificate at the end of the program to show she has learned computer skills.

A.will give B.will be given

C.gave D.was given

7.Martin Luther King demanded that people of all races ______.

A.were equally treated B.should treat equally

C.be equally treated D. are giving equal rights

8.Different types of teas ______ by skilled tea-tasters before appearing in the Tea Trade Centre.

A.are tasted B.were tasted

C.tasted D.have tasted

9.—Do you think he can win the prize for the race?

—Impossible now. He ________ to do so, but he has just had his right leg hurt.

A.has expected B.is expected

C.would expect D.was expected

10.Today, the forests have almost gone. People must _________down too many trees.

A.stop to cut B.stop from cutting

C.be stopped to cut D.be stopped from cutting

II.语法填空

阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。

China has once again proved its ___1___ (able) to change the world with the“new four great inventions”:high-speed railways,electronic payments,shared bicycles and online shopping.

They’re related to China’s high-tech innovation(创新),___2___ has improved the quality of people’s lives,according to a survey ___3___ (make) by the Belt and Road Research Institute of Beijing Foreign Studies University.

“My wallet is no longer in use.I can buy and eat whatever I want simply with a fingertip on my phone,”said ___4___ university student,adding that “even pancake sellers are using mobile payment”.

The bikes ___5___ (them)are not new,but the operating model of bike-sharing ___6___(base) on satellite navigation system,mobile payment,big data and other high technologies.

China has entered a new innovative era,thanks to the large amounts of capital China has invested in ___7___ (encourage)innovation,said Bernhard Schwartlander,WHO Representative in China.

___8___ is increasingly clear that China is innovating and no longer copying Western ideas.This is ___9___ (especial)true in mobile,where China is leading in many ways such as…social messaging app WeChat,she said.This is partly because China skipped over the PC era and went directly to mobile.China has the ____10____ (1arge)mobile use in the world.

 

 

题组三 体验真题

1.(2018·江苏卷﹒单项填空) I was sent to the village last month to see how the development plan _______ in the past two years.

A.had been carried out B. would be carried out

C.is being carried out D. has been carried out

2.(2017·新课标II卷·语法填空)Steam engines __65_(use) to pull the carriages and it must have been(fairly)(fair)unpleasant for the passengers, with all the smoke and noise.

3.(2017·新课标III卷·语法填空)Sarah  63   (tell) that she could be Britain’s new supermodel earning a million dollars in the next year.

4.(2016·北京卷﹒单项填空)The students have been working hard on their lessons and their efforts ____________ with success in the end.

A.rewarded B. were rewarded

C.will reward D. will be rewarded

5.(2016·江苏卷﹒单项填空)More efforts, as reported, ____________ in the years ahead to accelerate the supply-side structural reform.

A.are made B.will be made

C.are being made D.have been made

6.(2016·全国新课标卷I﹒语法填空)So it was a great honour to be invited backstage at the not-for-profit Panda Base, where ticket money helps pay for research, I   62  (allow)to get up close to these cute animals at the 600-acre centre.

7.(2016·上海卷﹒语法填空)In recent years, stress (33) ____________ (regard) as a cause of a whole range of medical problems, from high blood pressure to mental illness.

8.(2016·四川卷﹒语法填空)The giant panda   41  (love) by people throughout the world.

 

题组一 基础过关

用被动语态的形式完成下列句子

1.will be told 2.is referred to 3.have been taken

4.is being discussed 5.is respected 6.been washed

7.was punished 8.will not be allowed

题组二 能力提升

I.单项填空

1.D

【解析】考查动词时态。句意:我在回家的路上淋了雨,新衣服被毁了。my suit与ruin的关系是被动关系,要用被动语态;从题意可知,我的衣服是过去弄湿了,现在还是湿的,用现在完成时态;主语my new suit是第三人称单数。故选D。

2.D

【解析】考查时态和语态。句意:目前,除了经理外,所有的员工都被鼓励可以在家里在网上工作。主语是all the employees,谓语用复数;与encourage之间是被动关系。故选D。

3.C

【解析】考查动词辨析,时态和语态。句意:他到处寻找材料,最后他的努力得到了回报。这种药被证明是非常有效的。look是不及物动词,“看的也是5explore 探索,探测: hunt打猎;搜索。prove 在此是系动词,“证明是,发现为的意思,不用于被动,后面跟形容词或to.be结构。故选C。

4.C

【解析】考查时态和语态。句意:——这个噪音是什么?——我忘记告诉你了。新的洗衣机正在被检测。根据问句“What’s that noise?”可知,新的机器正在被检测。所以,本句要用现在进行时的被动语态。故选C。

5.B

【解析】考查时态和语态。主语是The plan for Xiongan New Area,与谓语动词announce之间是被动关系,时间状语是2017年4月1号,所以用一般过去时的被动语态。

6.B

【解析】考查时态和语态。句意:在这个项目结束的时候,将会给Ann一个证书以表明她已经学会了计算机技能。由句意可知,Ann和give之间是被动关系,且“给她证书”是这个项目结束时才会发生的事,故要用将来时态。故B选项正确。

7.C

【解析】考查虚拟语气和被动语态。句意:马丁路德金要求所有种族的人被平等对待。demand后面的宾语从句用虚拟语气,谓语用should do,should可以省略,而且people of all races 和treat是被动关系,故选C。

8.A

【解析】考查时态语态。句意:在出现在茶叶交易中心之前,不同类型的茶叶被品茶师品尝。teas和taste是被动关系,而且这句话表示客观事实,用一般现在时。故选A。

9.D

【解析】考查时态、语态。句意:你认为他能在跑步比赛中获奖吗?现在几乎不可能了,他曾有希望获奖,但是他刚刚弄伤了右腿。He与expect之间是被动关系,而且这一动作发生在过去,应该用一般过去时的被动语态,故D项正确。

10.D

【解析】考查动词语态和动词的用法。stop sb. from doing sth.是固定用法,意为“阻止某人做某事”;又因主语People和stop之间是动宾关系,所以此处应选D。

II.语法填空

【文章大意】本文是一篇说明文。本文主要讲了中国正用“新的四大发明”来改变世界。

1.ability

【解析】考查名词。作proved的宾语,用名词,所以填ability。

2.which

【解析】考查非限制性定语从句。___2___ has improved the quality of people’s lives,作定语,修饰China’s high-tech innovation(创新),且有逗号隔开,所以___2___ has improved the quality of people’s lives,是一个非限制性定语从句,关系词在从句中作主语,指物,所以用which。

3.made

【解析】考查非谓语动词。make与其逻辑主语a survey之间是被动关系,所以用过去分词作定语,填made。

4.a

【解析】考查冠词。泛指“一位大学生”,且university的首字母发音是辅音,所以填不定冠词a。

5.themselves

【解析】考查反身代词。句意:自行车它们本身不是新的。表示“它们本身”,所以填themselves。

6.is based

【解析】考查时态和语态。表示主语现在的状态,用一般现在时,且the operating model of bike-sharing与base on之间是被动关系,用被动语态,所以填is based。

7.encouraging

【解析】考查固定用法。介词in之后用v-ing形式做宾语,所以填encouraging。

8.It

【解析】考查形式主语。that China is innovating and no longer copying Western ideas.句子真正的主语,这里需要一个形式主语,所以填it。

9.especially

【解析】考查副词。修饰形容词true用副词,所以填especially。

10. largest

【解析】考查最高级。中国在世界上拥有最大的手机使用量。表示“最大的”,用最高级,所以填largest。

题组三 体验真题

1.A

【解析】考查时态。句意:上个月我被派到村里去看看在过去的两年里发展计划是如何执行的。根据句中时间状语last month和in the past two years可知用过去完成时。故选A。

2.were used

【解析】考查被动语态,此处表示过去的被动,故填were used。

3.was told / has been told

【解析】考查动词的时态和语态。根据语境可判断出谓语动词应该用一般过去时或现在完成时的被动形式,又因主语Sarah是第三人称单数,故填was told / has been told。

4.D

【解析】题目考查时态和语态。句意:学生们一直在刻苦学习功课,他们的努力(将来)一定会得到回报。根据句意可知,回报是将来要发生的事情,应该用将来时; effrts 和reward是被动关系,应该使用被动语态,故选D。

5.B

【解析】考查时态语态。句意:正如报道的那样,在未来几年将做出的努力,以加速供给结构改革的速度。本句的时间状语“in the years ahead在未来的几年里”和将来时连用,且efforts与动词make构成被动关系,所以使用被动语态。所以要使用一般将来时的被动语态形式,故B正确。

6.was allowed

【解析】考查时态和语态。根据句意可知,作者是被允许走近这些动物,be allowed to do sth"被允许做某事"。

7.has been regarded

【解析】考查时态和语态。本句的时间状语时in rcent years (最近几年来),该时间状语常和现在完成时连用,且句子的主语stress和动词regard之间构成被动关系,所以要用现在完成时的被动语态形式has been regarded。

8.is loved

【解析】句意:大熊猫被全世界的人喜欢。根据句意可知用一般现在时态的被动语态,The giant panda是单数第三人称形式,故填is loved。

高考英语

高考英语考点——将来时

2019-12-11 9:58:50

高考英语

高考英语考点——非谓语动词

2019-12-13 10:20:21

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