高考英语考点——完成进行时

考点解读

考向一 现在完成进行时

1.现在完成进行时的定义

现在完成进行时表示某动作从过去某个时间开始,一直延续到现在,并且还有可能持续下去。

We have been waiting for him for two hours.

2.现在完成进行时的结构

have/has been + doing

3.现在完成进行时所用的时间状语

this month/week/year,these days,recently/lately,in the past few+时间段,since +时间点,for+时间段。

They have been building the bridge for two months.

They have been planting trees this month. 这个月他们在植树。

4.现在完成进行时的用法

(1)表示动作的延续

The Chinese have been making paper for two thousand years. 中国有2,000年的造纸历史。(动作还将继续下去)

I have been learning English since three years ago. 自从三年前以来我一直在学英语。(表示在说话时刻之前刚刚结束的动作)

We have been waiting for you for half an hour. 我们已经等你半个钟头了。(动作不再继续下去)

★ 有些现在完成进行时的句子等同于现在完成时的句子。

They have been living in this city for ten years.

They have lived in this city for ten years. 他们在这个城市已经住了10年了。

I have been working here for five years.

I have worked here for five years. 我在这里已经工作两年了。

★大多数现在完成进行时的句子不等同于现在完成时的句子。

I have been writing a book. 我一直在写一本书。(动作还将继续下去)

I have written a book. 我已经写了一本书。(动作已经完成)

They have been building a bridge. 他们一直在造一座桥。

They have built a bridge. 他们造了一座桥。

★表示状态的动词不能用于现在完成进行时。

I have known him for years. 我认识他已经好几年了。

I have been knowing…(×)

★ 这类不能用于现在完成进行时的动词还有:love爱,like喜欢,hate讨厌等。

【疑难辨析】

现在完成进行时和现在完成时的辨析:

(1)现在完成进行时可以表示动作的重复,而现在完成时一般不表示重复性

Have you been meeting him recently?你最近常和他见面吗?

Have you met him recently?你最近见到过他吗?

(2)现在完成进行时有时含有感情色彩,而现在完成时一般是平铺直叙

I have been waiting for you for two hours.我一直等了你两个小时。(可能表示不满)

I have waited for you for two hours.我等了你两个小时。(说明一个事实)

(3)现在完成进行时强调动作,而现在完成时强调结果

Who has been eating the oranges?谁一直在吃这些桔子呀?(还剩余一些)

Who has eaten the oranges?谁把桔子吃光了?(强调吃得一个不剩)

1.(2016·北京卷﹒单项填空)—Excuse me, which movie are you waiting for?

—The new Star Wars. We ____________ here for more than two hours.

A,waited B. wait

C.would be waiting D. have been waiting

【答案】D

【解析】考查时态。句意:打扰了,你们在等哪一部电影?《星球大战》我们已经在这儿等了两个多小时了。” for时间段”与完成时连用,根据语境可知,说话的时候仍然在等,因此用现在完成进行时,故选D。

【名师点睛】英语中的时态主要由动词的形式决定,因此在学习英语时态时,要注意分析动词形式及具体语境,想象在那个特定的时间动作所发生的背景,这个动作是经常性动作、一般性动作、进行性动作、完成性动作还是将要发生的动作。现在完成进行时表示从过去到现在一直进行可能还要继续进行的动作。

2.(2016·江苏卷﹒单项填空)Dashan, who ____________ crosstalk, the Chinese comedic tradition, for decades, wants to mix it up with the Western stand-up tradition.

A.will be learning B. is learning

C.had been learning D. has been learning

【答案】D

【解析】考查时态。本句的时间状语是"for decades几十年来",该时间状语通常和现在完成的有关时态连用,本句强调这几十年来大山一直努力把中国相声和西方的脱口秀相结合。所以使用现在完成进行时,强调动作的延续性和反复性。故D正确。

 

考向二 过去完成进行时

1.构成:过去完成进行时是由"had been +现在分词"构成。

She had been suffering from a bad cold when she took the exam. 她在考试之前一直患重感冒。

Had they been expecting the news for some time? 他们期待这个消息有一段时间了吧?

2.用法:

(1)表示过去某一时间之前一直进行的动作。

过去完成进行时表示动作在过去某一时间之前开始,一直延续到这一过去时间。和过去完成时一样,过去完成进行时也必须以一过去时间为前提。过去完成进行时也是一个相对的时态, 上下文中须有明示或暗示的作为参照的过去的时间。

I had been looking for it for days before I found it. 这东西我找了好多天才找着。

They had only been waiting for the bus a few minutes when it came. 他们只等了几分钟车就来了。

(2)表示反复的动作。

He had been mentioning your name to me. 他过去多次向我提到过你的名字。

(3)过去完成进行时还常用于间接引语中。

The doctor asked what he had been eating. 医生问他吃了什么。

I asked where they had been staying all those days. 我问他们那些天待在哪儿。

(4)过去完成进行时之后也可接具有"突然"之意的when从句。

I had only been reading a few minutes when he came in. 我刚看了几分钟他就进来了。

She’d only been reviewing her lessons for a short while when her little sister interrupted her. 她温习功课才一会儿,她妹妹就打断她了。

1.He ____________ research in the US for many years, but when he came back, he became a businessman.

A.had been doing B.has been doing

C.did D.has done

【答案】A

【解析】考查过去完成进行时。句意三他在美国作了许多年的研究,但是回来之后,他却成了一位商人。根据时间状语从句” when he came back”可知,”作研究”是过去的过去直在进行的动作, 要用过去完成进行时。故选A。

2.The crazy fans ____________ patiently in the rain for almost three hours, and they would wait until the famous star arrived.

A.were waiting B. have waited

C.had been waiting D. would wait

【答案】C

【解析】考查动词的时态。因为would wait是过去将来时,可见此事发生在过去,再结合for two hours可知,wait这个动作是从过去某一时刻开始一直延续到另一个过去时刻,并且还在等,一直要等到那位影星到来,所以用过去完成进行时:had been doing,因此选C项。

 

考向二 将来完成进行时

1.将来完成进行时的用法

将来完成进行时表示某一动作从某一时间开始一直延续到将来某一时间(即说话者人提及的时间),是否继续下去,要视上下文而定。如:

By this time next week, I will have been working for this company for 24 years.

到下星期此刻,我已经为该公司干了24年了。

If we don’t hurry up the store will have been closing before we get there.

咱们若不快一点儿,等我们到了那儿,店门就会关了。

2.将来完成进行时的构成

将来完成进行时由“will / shall have been+现在分词”构成。

By the end of this year he’ll have been acting for thirty years. 到今年年底他当演员就满30年了。

I shall have been working here in this factory for twenty years by the end of the year.

到今年年底,我在这个工厂工作就有20年了。 

3.将来完成进行时连用的时间状语

与将来完成进行时连用最多的时间状语时是“by+将来时间”,见上面的例子。当然除“by+将来时间”外,连用其他的时间状语也是可能的。如:

He will have been working all day. 他整天将都在工作。

She will have been having treatment all her life. 她将终生受到治疗。

I’ll have been teaching for thirty years this winter. 到今年冬天我就已任教三十年了。

4.将来完成进行时的情态意义

“will / shall have been+现在分词”结构除表示将来完成进行时外,有时其中的 will 也可能是情态动词,具有情态意义,比较表示推测或猜想等。如:

They will have been having a holiday yesterday. 他们昨天大概是在度假。

You’ll have been wondering all this time how my invention works.

我想你这些时候一直想知道我的发明怎样会行得通的。

5.将来完成进行时用于状语从句的变体

正如我们通常要在条件状语从句和时时间状语从句中用一般现在时代替一般将来时以及用现在完成时代替将来完成时等一样,如果因语义的需要,我们需要在条件状语从句和时时间状语从句中使用将来完成进行时,那么我们通常要用现在完成进行时代替将来完成进行时。如:

I’ll have finished in the bathroom in a few minutes. 我一会儿就用完浴室了。

As soon as I have finished I’ll give you a call. 我一完事儿,就给你打电话。

 

题组一 基础过关

1.Good Heavens! You are here, Mary! Your parents told me this morning that they ____________ worried about you and they ____________ you back the whole night.

A.were;were expecting B.had been;had been expecting

C.had been;were expecting D.were;had been expecting

2.To my great joy, I got a chance to take a photo with Andy after the concert, which I ____________ forward to for years.

A.have been looking B.had been looking

C.looked D.had looked

3.—Why, boys, you look so tired!

—Well, we ____________ all the way home.

A.have been running B.had been running

C.will be running D.had run

4.Marty ____________ really hard on his book and thinks he’ll have finished it by Friday.

A.worked B. has been working

C.had worked D. has worked

5.Excuse me, Madam. Ellen, a journalist from the Daily Mail____________ all day. Could you speak to him now?

A.phones B.has phoned

C.phoned D.has been phoning

 

6.Housing prices ____________ since the end of last year. Therefore, it’s time the central government ____________ some effective measures to bring them under control.

A.have increased;would take B.have increased;will take

C.have been increasing;takes D.have been increasing;took

7.—Wow, I didn’t know you play golf so well.

—I ____________ for the last 6 months.

A.play B. played

C.am playing D.have been playing

8.—I have failed in the driving test again. I ____________ hard on it but…

—Never say die. In fact, the new rules are too difficult but you are making progress.

A.work B.worked

C.have been worked D.had been working

9.I wonder if John has forgotten my number. I ____________ him to call me for the past two hours.

A.was expecting B.have expected

C.have been expecting D.expected

10.She apologized to beg his forgiveness. After all, they ____________ business for many years.

A.had been doing B.have been doing

C.have done D.did

题组二 能力提升

语法填空

My wife and I like watching plays, so we’ll go to the theater whenever we have time. But before we buy tickets, we would like to know if the play is good or bad. When a new play comes, we  1 (usual) read the newspaper to get information about it. Last week a new play was put on at the theater. The newspaper said it was very  2 (interest) so we decided to go on Saturday night. My wife took a long time to make up her  3 about what to wear and we left our house a little late.  4 the time we got to the theater, the first act had already  5 (begin). After the play was over, we met some friends,  6 lived next to us several years ago. Then we went dancing. By the time we got home, it was about two o’clock in the morning. I’m not accustomed to  7 (stay) out so late and I was  8 (extreme) tired.

When I was younger, I didn’t have the money to go out for  9 evening like this. Though I can afford it now, I don’t have the energy  10 (enjoy) it.

 

题组三 体验真题

1.(2018·新课标III卷改编)In fact, tradition also refers to the things that have been developing and that are still being created.

2.(2017·新课标I卷改编)Since 1962, Pacific Science Center ________(inspire) a passion(热情) for discovery and lifelong learning in science, math and technology.

3.(2017·新课标II卷改编)Inventors ________(try) to make flying cars since the 1930s, according to Robert Mann, an airline industry expert.

4.(2017·浙江卷改编)His father said that the cat must be sick. Benjamin was forced to admit what he _________( do).

5.(2015·陕西)Mary         really hard on his book and thinks he’ll have finished it by Friday.

A.worked     B. has been working

C.had worked      D. has worked

6.(2015·福建)—Where is Peter? I can’t find him anywhere.

—He went to the library after breakfast and  his essay there ever since.

A.wrote B. had written

C.has been writing D. is writing

 

1.D 【解析】考查时态。句意:天啊!玛丽,你在这儿!你的父母今天早晨告诉我他们很担心你,整个晚上他们一 直盼着你回去。根据句意可知,第一个空应用般过去时,排除B、C两项; 根据时间状语the whole night可知,第二个空要用进行时,表示在过去一段时间内持续的动作,又因expect这一动作发生在told 之前,所以第二个空用过去完成进行时。

2.B  【解析】考查动词时态。句意:让我非常高兴的是,在演唱会后我有机会和Andy拍照,这是我多年一直盼望的事情。由句中的got可知,空处指的是过去的过去一直在做的事情,故用过去完成进行时,所以选B。

3.A 【解析】考查时态。句意:——孩子们,你们看起来是这么的累!——我们一路上一直是跑着回家的。根据句意可知表达的意思是回家的路上一直是跑着的,应该用现在完成进行时,表示动作从过去结束,一直持续到现在,并且还有可能会继续持续下去。A项为现在完成进行时,B项为过去完成进行时,C项为一般将来进行时,D项为过去完成时。故选A项。

4.B  【解析】句意:Marty一直努力写书,我想他到周五为止将已经完成了。用现在完成进行时表示从过去到现在一直进行的动作。所以选B。

5.D  【解析】考查时态。句意:对不起,夫人,来自the Daily Mail 的记者Ellen一天都在打电话。你现在可以和他谈话吗?根据语境可知用现在完成进行时,表示过去到现在一直在做某事。故选D。

6.D【解析】考查时态和虚拟语气。句意:自从去年底,房价一直在上涨。因此,中央政府到了采取有效
措施控制房价的时候了。和since the end of last year搭配用现在完成时或现在完成进行时; It is time+从句中,从句的谓语用shoulddo或过去式表示虚拟语气。故选D。

7.D  【解析】考查时态。句意:——喔,我不知道你高尔夫球打得这么好。——我已经打了六个月了。和for the last 6 months 搭配用现在完成时或现在完成进行时。故选D。

8.D  【解析】考查动词的时态。根据第一个人说的话中的"have failed"可知,"考试"这个动作发生在过去,"考试失败"这个结果影响到了现在。而"work"这个动作发生在考试之前且在过去的一段时间内一直在进行,故用过去完成进行时。

9.C  【解析】句意:我想知道约翰是否忘记了我的电话号码。在过去的两个小时里,我一直期待他给我打电话。根据句意和时间状语"for the past two hours"可知,本句要用现在完成进行时。故选C。

10.A  【解析】考查动词的时态。句意:她道歉恳请他原谅。毕竟他们(彼此)做生意好多年了。"道歉"这一动作发生在过去,"做生意"这一动作是从过去的过去某一时间点开始的动作一直延续到过去(道歉),故要用过去完成进行时。

题组二 能力提升

语法填空

【文章大意】这是一篇记叙文。文章讲述了作者和妻子的爱好以及作者和妻子去看戏的经历。

1.usually

【解析】考查副词的用法。分析句子结构可知,此处应用副词修饰动词 read。句意:当一部新戏上演的时候,我们通常读报纸得到关于这部戏的信息。

2.interesting

【解析】考查形容词的用法。此处的主语it指物,故应用提示词的形容词形式interesting”有趣的”。

3.mind

【解析】考查名词的用法。make up one’s mind是固定短语,表示”下定决心”。 句意:我的妻子花了很长时间决定穿什么,因此我们离开家的时候有点晚。

4.By

【解析】考查介词的用法。根据主句谓语”had already   (begin)”可知,这里的时间状语应该为by the time…”到……时候为止”。句意:当我们到达剧院的时候,第一幕已经开始了。

5.begun

【解析】考查动词的用法。由空前的had可知此处应用动词begin的过去分词形式。

6.who

【解析】考查定语从句的引导词。句意:戏剧表演结束之后,我们遇到几个朋友,他们几年前曾住在我们的隔壁。先行词some friends指人,关系词在从句中作主语,又因为是非限制性定语从句,故此空填who。

7.staying

【解析】考查非谓语动词。be accustomed to doing sth.”习惯于做某事”,此固定短语中的to为介词,故应该用staying。

8 .extremely
【解析】考查副词的用法。此空后面是形容词tired所以用副词修饰形容词。故此空填extremely。 此处表示我非常累。
9.an
【解析】考查冠词的用法。此处表示泛指且evening的发音是以元音音素开头的,故用不定冠词an。an evening
一个晚上。句意:当我年轻的时候,我没有钱像这样出去玩一个晚上。

10.to enjoy

【解析】考查非谓语动词。have the energy to do sth.表示”有精力去做某事”。句意:尽管现在我能负担得起,但是我却没有精力去享受。#网

 

题组三体验真题

1.have been developing

【解析】此处表示develop这个动作从过去开始,一直延续到现在,并且还有可能持续下去。

2.has been inspiring

【解析】此处表示inspire这个动作从过去1962年开始,一直延续到现在,并且还有可能持续下去。

3.have been trying

【解析】此处表示try这个动作从过去the 1930s年开始,一直延续到现在,并且还有可能持续下去。

4.had been doing

【解析】根据语境可知,此处要用过去完成进行时。

5.B

【解析】句意:Marty一直努力写书,我想他到周五为止将已经完成了。用现在完成进行时表示从过去到现在一直进行的动作。所以选B。

6.C

【解析】考查现在完成进行时。根据句意:彼得在那里,我哪儿都找不到他。一一 他在早餐过后就去了图书馆,然后自从那以后他就一直在那里写论文。从句意中可以知道彼得是吃过早餐之后去了图书馆,从那个时候开始他就一直在写论文,这个动作直延续到了现在,所以用现在完成时。现在完成进行时表示动作从某一时间开始,直持续到现在。故选C。

 

 

高考英语

高考英语考点——完成时

2019-12-9 9:35:44

高考英语

高考英语考点——将来时

2019-12-11 9:58:50

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