高考英语考点——进行时

考点解读

进行时表示动作正在进行,这个动作是暂时的,也是未完成的。进行时包括现在进行时、过去进行时和将来进行时。

考向一 现在进行时

一、构成:am/is/are + 动词的-ing形式

二、现在进行时的用法:

1.表示说话时正在进行的动作或存在的状态。

Our friends are waiting for us outside now. 我们的朋友们在外面等我们。

What are you doing? 你在干什么?

He is playing basketball now. 他正在打篮球。

2.表示现阶段正在进行的动作或发生的事情。

She is learning English at college. 她在大学学英语。

Lucy is studying law while her sister is doing physics. 露西学习法律,她姐姐学习物理。(动作在说话时不一定正在进行)

3.某些短暂性动词,如come, go, start, open, close, arrive, return, begin, leave等用于进行时,表示按计划、安排即将发生的动作。

My father is coming to see me this Saturday. 父亲这个星期六来看我。

He is leaving for Beijing next week. 下周他要去北京。

4.某些动词的进行时表示慢慢地、渐渐地发生变化。

I’m forgetting English. 我的英语快忘记了。

She is losing her eyesight. 她的视力在慢慢地丧失。

5.表示刚刚过去的动作:(动词为某些表示说话的词:tell,talk,say等)

Believe it or not, I am telling the truth. 不管你信不信,我说的都是实话。

I don’t know what you are talking about. 我不知道你们在说什么。

6.表示某种感情色彩:与频度副词(always, continually, constantly, for ever)连用。

He is always complaining about the house. 他总是抱怨这间房子。

She is continually finding fault with me. 她总是对我吹毛求疵。

7.表示婉转语气:(仅限hope, wonder等少数词。)

I am hoping you will give us some advice. 我希望你会给我们一些建议。

I am wondering if you can help us. 我想知道你能否帮我们。

 

三、 下面四类动词不宜用现在进行时:

①表示心理状态、情感的动词:like,love,hate,care,remember,believe,want,mind,wish,agree,mean,need等。

②表示存在状态的动词:appear,exist,lie,remain,seem,belong to等。

③表示行为结果的动词:allow,accept,permit,promise,admit,complete等。

④表示感官的动词:see,hear,notice,feel,smell,sound,taste,look等。

四、  现在进行时和一般现在时的比较

①暂时性动作和经常性动作

The computer is working perfectly.

计算机运转得很好。(暂时)

The computer works perfectly.

计算机运转很好。(一直如此)

②持续性动作和短暂性动作

The bus is stopping.

车停了下来。(渐渐地)

The bus stops. 车停了。(迅速)

③暂时性动作和永久性动作

She is living in the country.

她现在住在农村。(暂时)

She lives in the country.

她住在农村。(永久)

④有感情色彩和没有感情色彩

He is doing well at school.

他在学校表现很好。(赞扬)

He does well at school.

他在学校表现很好。(一般事实)

【名师点睛】

1. (2018天津卷·单项填空)My washing machine ___________this week, so I have to wash my clothes by hand.

A.was repairedB. is repaired

C.is being repairedD. has been repaired

【答案】C【[解析】考查时态。句意:这周我的洗衣机正在修,所以我不得不手洗衣服。根据后向so I have to wash myclothes by hand.可知,洗衣机正在修,故用现在进行时态的被动语态。故选C.

2.—Mr. Jordan, we want to hear your opinion about the current NBA games.

—OK, I    to that.

A.am coming B. have come

C.came D.come

【答案】A

【解析】考查现在进行时表将来的用法。英语中有一部分动词用进行时表示将来。常见的有:come, go, leave, arrive, stay等。@网

3.—Hi, let’s go skating.

—Sorry, I’m busy right now. I ___________ in an application form for a new job.

A.fill B. have filled

C.am filling D. will fill

【答案】C

【解析】考查动词时态。句意:嗨,我们去滑冰吧。一 对不起,我现在很忙。 我正在填一个新工作申请表。根据句意可知,我正在填表。故用现在进行时。

考向二 过去进行时

1.概念:过去进行时主要表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作,或表示过去某一阶段一直在进行的动作。

2.过去进行时的构成:助动词be的过去式形式(was, were)+ 现在分词    

否定形式:was / were + not + doing

一般疑问句:把was或were放于句首

3.过去进行时的用法:  

(1)表示过去某一时刻,或某一阶段正在进行的动作。通常和表示过去的时间状语连用。

I was having a bath when the phone rang. 我正在洗澡,突然电话铃响了。

She was writing letters. I didn’t want to disturb her. 她在写信。我不想打扰她。

(2)表示过去习惯性、经常性动作。但是这种习惯性动作具有过去某一阶段的暂时性。

In those days, Tom used to get up at 9:00, but that week, he was getting up at 5:00 every day.

(3)过去进行时经常和always,constantly,forever,continually等频度副词连用,表示说话人对某种行为的厌烦等不满情绪。

He was always playing tricks on me. 他老是捉弄我。

He was constantly changing his mind. 他老是改变主意。

She was forever complaining. 她老是抱怨。

(4)表示过去将来时间里按计划或安排即将发生的动作。即表示过去将来。

Four of them were coming for Sunday lunch. 他们有四个人将在星期天来吃午饭。

Her daughter was going to a summer camp the following day. 她的女儿将在第二天去参加夏令营。

(5)在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,用过去进行时表示过去将来正在进行的动作。

He told me to wake him up if he was sleeping.

I will let you know when Mary is arriving.

(6)动词 hope, wonder 等的过去进行时常用来表示提出要求,虽然表示现在的内容,但语气比一般现在时或一般过去时要委婉。

I was wondering if you could give me a lift. 我不知道您能不能让我搭一下车。

I was thinking it might be a good idea to keep the window open. 我看还是把窗户开着的好。

注意:

一般过去时也有类似用法,区别在于:一般过去时通常表示主语的行为是经过认真考虑的,而过去进行时则多表示一种较随便或没有进行仔细考虑的行为。

(7)过去进行时用于虚拟语气,表示对现在或将来的主观臆想,与事实相反的情况。

She wishes that she were coming with us tomorrow. 她希望明天和我们一起来。(对将来的虚拟)

I wish that they were not talking so loudly. 我希望他们不要说话那么大声。(对现在的虚拟)

注意:

当一般过去时和过去进行时同时出现在句中,通常是表示短暂动作的动词用一般过去时,而表示较长时间的动作用过去进行时。

4.过去进行时与一般过去时的区别

①一般过去时往往表示某一动作已经完成,而过去进行时却表示动作在持续或未完成。

She wrote a letter to her friend last night.

她昨晚给朋友写了封信。(信写完了)

She was writing a letter to her friend last night.

她昨晚一直在给朋友写信。(信不一定写完)

②一般过去时表示只做一次动作,而过去进行时却表示动作反复地进行。

She waved to me.  她朝我挥了挥手。

She was waving to me.她不断地朝我挥手。

The boy jumped up and down.这男孩跳了一下。

The boy was jumping up and down.这男孩不停地跳着。

 

1. (2018北京卷·单项填空)Susan had quit her well-paid job and _________ as a volunteer in the neighborhood when I visited her last year.

A.is working B. was working

C.has worked D. had worked

【答案】B

【解析】查时态。句意: Susan 已经辞去了高薪的工作。去年当我探望她的时候,她正在个社区里做志愿者。Susan辞职发生在她当志愿者之前,had qut是过去完成时态,过去完成时态通俗的说就是过去的过去”,且结合时间状语when I visted her last year可知,Susan 做志愿者是过去的某个时间段发生的情况,故该空应用过去进行时态。B选项正确。

2.(2016·北京卷·单项填空)Jack ___________ in the lab when the power cut occurred.

A.works B. has worked

C.was working D. would work

【答案】C

【解析】考查时态。句意:突然断电时,杰克正在实验室里工作。根据occurred可知,这里指过去某时刻正在发生的事情,断电时,杰克正在工作,要用过去进行时,故选C。

3.(2017·江苏卷·单项填空) He hurried home, never once looking back to see if he ____________.

A.was being followed        B. was following

C.had been followed      D. followed

【答案】 A

【解析】考查宾语从句和时态。分析句子成分可知,he和follow是被动关系,即他被别人跟踪,排除B、D;根据句意"在匆忙赶回家的路上,他从未回头看是否正被跟踪",故用过去进行时最合适,故选A。

 

考向三 将来进行时

1.定义:将来进行时是指将来某个时间正在进行的动作。

2.基本结构:主语+will be/be going to be +doing

I will be sleeping at 12:00 p.m. 十二点的时候我将在睡觉。

I will be studying in university at the age of 20. 我20岁的时候我将会在大学里学习。

3.用法:

(1)表示将来某一时间正在进行的动作,一般带状语。

What will you be doing at this time next Monday? 下周一的这个时候你会做什么?

When he comes to my house tomorrow, I will be writing the report. 明天他来我家时,我将在写报告。

(2)表示现在正在进行的动作,但这个动作会延续到将来。

I wonder if it will still be raining this afternoon. 我想知道今天下午是否还会一直下雨。

I think that she will be working on this experiment until next morning. 我想她会一直在做这个实验直到第二天早上。

(3)表示预定的将来动作或对将来的预测。

Tomorrow I will be flying to Bombay. 明天我将飞往孟买。

After you take the medicine, you will be feeling much better. 吃完药后,你会感觉好很多。

(4)表示委婉的请求。

When shall we be meeting again? 我们什么时候能再见面?

(5)表示原因。

Please come tomorrow afternoon. Tomorrow morning I’ll be having a meeting. 请明天下午过来。明天早上我将有一个会议。

(6)表示结果。

Stop the child or he will be falling over. 快阻止那个孩子,要不然他会摔跤的。

(7)表示对将来的打算(区别于对将来的预测)

My duties will end in July, and I’ll be returning to Beijing. 七月我将结束工作,返回北京。

 

Jane can’t attend the meeting at 3 o’clock this afternoon because she ___________ a class at that time.

A.will teach B. would teach

C.has taught D. will be teaching

【答案】D

【解析】句意:简不能参加今天下午3点钟的会议,因为她那个时候在个班上课。根据句中的时间状语at that time指代at 3 0’clock this afternoon,表示在将来的某一-时刻正在做某事, 要用将来完成时。故选D。

【名师点睛】本题考查时态。将来进行时主要表示将来某一时间正在进行的动作,或表示要在将来某一时间开始,并继续下去的动作。分析此题需抓住时间状语以及that time所代指的时间,再联系所学将来进行时所应用的范围及句意可以选出正确的答案。

 

题组一 基础过关

单项填空

1.—Is it convenient for you to go shopping with me tomorrow morning?

—I’m afraid not. I ___________ then.

A.will have a meeting B.am about to have a meeting

C.am having a meeting D.will be having a meeting

2.—Mr Foster, were you at home when Justin disappeared last night?

—No, I ___________ that night on my road construction job.

A.was working B.had worked

C.would work D.had been working

3.—Could you attend the lecture about city development tomorrow afternoon?

—Sorry, I ___________ to Paris for a Chinese silk exhibition then.

A.will be flying B.will fly

C.fly D.am flying

4.—Hi, Susan, where were you at lunch time? I ___________ a seat for you in the coffee shop.

—Sorry, but my science class ran longer than usual.

A.had saved B.have saved

C.am saving D.was saving

5.—Excuse me, are you listening to me?

—Sorry, I ___________ about the exam we will have tomorrow.

A.thought B.was thinking

C.am thinking D.think

 

6.At present, many new workers ___________ and in six months they will be sent to build a new railway.

A.are being trained B.are training

C.will train D.will be trained

7.—I feel scared, sir.

—Don’t worry. I ___________ outside your house tonight ___________ any emergency.

A.will be staying;in control of B.am about to stay;in case of

C.am about to stay;in control of D.will be staying;in case of

8.I think we should accept that offer, for we ___________ such bad luck up till now and time ___________.

A.have;is run out B.have had;is running out

C.have had;is run out D.have;is running out

9.—Have you received a reply to your job application?

—No. I ___________.

A.waited B.am waiting

C.have waited D.had been waiting

10.You probably can’t get much sleep if you live near ___________ a wedding reception ___________.

A.the place;is being held B.the place where;has been held

C.where;is being held D.which;has been held

 

题组二 能力提升

阅读下面材料,在空格处填入1个适当的单词或括号中单词的正确形式

After David’s daughter was born, he decided to make one million dollars. He thought in this way his daughter would live   1   happy life.

In order to achieve his goal, David devoted most   2   his time to his business. While other fathers   3   (play) with their kids outside, he was working. While other fathers were reading stories to their kids, he was hanging out with his clients. His little daughter   4  (name) Jane hardly saw him.

Time flew fast. One day, when David returned home from work, he saw Jane   5  (sit) in the living room.   6   she saw him, she ran to him and asked him to play with her for a while."Sorry, Jane, but I’m   7  (terrible) busy tonight. I have a lot of work to do." He was about to leave when he heard Jane crying. So he stopped and asked why. "You’re always working. You have no time for me at all. You are not a good dad," Jane said. David was   8  (lose) in thought after hearing that. He remembered why he worked so hard — he wanted Jane to live a happy life. However, things are against his wishes. He   9  (teach) a good lesson that day. Therefore, he made

题组三 体验真题

1.(2016·北京)Jack ________ in the lab when the power cut occurred.

A.works B. has worked C. was working D. would work

2.(2015·浙江)Albert Einstein was born in 1879. As a child, few people guessed that he       a famous scientist whose theories would change the world.

A.has been      B. had been         C. was going to be       D. was

3.(2015·湖南)He must have sensed that I ________ him. He suddenly glanced at me and said quietly, “Why are you staring at me like that?”

A.would look at B. looked at C. was looking at D. am looking at

 

题组一 基础过关

单项填空

1.D  【解析】考查动词的时态。句意:——明天早上你方便和我去购物吗?——恐怕不方便。那时我将正在开会。表示将来某个时间或某段时间正在做某事,用将来进行时。故选D。

2.A  【解析】考查时态。句意:——Mr. Foster,昨晚Justin失踪的时候你在家吗?——不在,那晚我一直在做公路建筑工作。这句话的时间是that night,而且是整晚一直做某事,用过去进行时。故选A。

3.A  【解析】考查时态。句意:——明天下午你能参加关于城市发展的讲座吗?——对不起,那个时候我正飞往巴黎去看中国的丝绸展。then指代的就是tomorrow afternoon,在将来的某一个时间正在做某事用将来进行时,故A项正确。

4.D  【解析】考查时态。根据句意可知,"占位子"就是在"午饭期间"发生的,当时Susan还在上课,所以"占位子"要用过去进行时态。故选D。

5..B [解析]考查时态。句意:一打扰-下,你在听我说话么? . 不好意思,我刚才正在想明天考试的事情。由句意可知,说话时第个人的思路已经 被第一个人的话 语打断,因此此处强调刚才正在进行的动作,用过去进行时,故B项正确。

6.A  【解析】考查现在进行时的被动语态。句意:现在,很多新员工正在接受培训,六个月后他们将被派去修新的铁路,故选A。

7.D  【解析】考查将来进行时和介词短语。句意:——我感到害怕,先生。——别担心。我今晚会一直待在你房子外面以防有任何紧急事件。第一空用将来进行时表示将来某个或某段时间一直进行的动作;第二空用in case of 以防。故选D。

8.B  【解析】考查动词的时态和语态。up till now=so far是"到目前为止"的意思,是现在完成时的标志;run out意思是"用光,用尽",无被动。此句用现在进行时态表将来。故选B。

9.B 【解析】考查动词的时态。句意:——你收到工作申请的回复了吗?——没有。我一直在等。根据语境可知,工作申请已经发出,还没有收到回复。因此推断wait是说话当时存在的动作。表示现阶段存在的动作或状态,用现在进行时。故选B。

10. C 【解析】考查宾语从句和动词的时态。句意:如果你住的地方离直举办婚宴的地方较近的话, 你极可能得不到足够的睡眠。第空如果视为先行词加定 语从句的话,应为a the place where;此处也可视为near 的宾语从句,where在宾语从句中充当地点状语。现在进行时可表示最近一段时间一直发生的事情或持续的状态。根据句意及句子成分分析可知选C。

题组二 能力提升

1.a

【解析】考查冠词。句意:他认为,这样他的女儿将过上幸福的生活。live a / an… life为固定短语,意为"过着……的生活",所以填a。

2.of

【解析】考查介词。句意:为了实现他的目标,David把大部分时间都奉献在自己的生意上。most of …为固定短语,意为"大多数……",所以填of。

3.were playing

【解析】考查过去进行时。句意:当其他的爸爸们在外面和他们的孩子玩耍的时候,他在工作。根据句意可知,该动作正在进行;又根据时态一致原则可知要用过去进行时。

4.named

【解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:他的名字叫Jane的小女儿几乎看不到他。根据句意可知,该空作daughter的后置定语,daughter和name之间是逻辑上的动宾关系,所以应用过去分词作定语。

5.sitting

【解析】考查非谓语动词。see sb doing sth为固定短语,意为"看见某人正在做某事"。故此处应填sitting。

6.When

【解析】考查连词。句意:当她看见他,她跑过去,请求他陪她玩一会儿。根据句子的结构和逻辑关系可知,前半句是时间状语从句,故应填When,表示"当……的时候"。

7.terribly

【解析】考查副词。此处修饰形容词busy,故填副词terribly。

8.lost

【解析】考查固定短语。句意:听了那些话之后,David 陷入思考。be lost in意为"沉迷于……",故填lost。

9.was taught

【解析】考查被动语态。句意:那天女儿给他上了很好的一课。根据句意可知主语he与teach为动宾关系,所以应用被动语态;时间状语是that day,用一般过去时。故填was taught。

1.decision

【解析】考查名词。make a decision为固定短语,意为"做决定"。故填decision。

题组三 体验真题

1.C  【解析】考查时态。句意:突然断电时,杰克正在实验室里工作。根据occurred可知,这里指过去某时刻正在发生的事情,断电时,杰克正在工作,综合用过去进行时,故选C。

2.C【解析]】句意:爱因斯坦出生于 1879年,小的时候很少人猜到他将 会成为一个伟大的科学家, 他的理论将会改变全世界。根据句意,应该是表达过去将来时,所以只有C选项符合。该选项是使用过去进行时表将来。A选项是现在完成时(用以表达过去的动作对现在的影响,往往有些关键的词比如说since或者是for加一段时间),B选项是过去完成时(具备的条件是有两个动词,而且其中一个动作要在另一个动作之前发生,那么这个之前发生的动词就使用过去完成时),C选项是过去进行时(过去进行时表示过去某此刻正在进行的动作,另外动词going的进行时还可以表达将来), D选项是过去时( 表达过去的动作)。结合以上的表述以及后句使用的情态动词would (will 的过去时,用于过去将来时),分析可知答案就是C。

3.C  【解析】句意:他一定是注意到我在看着他。他突然看向我然后轻声问道:“你为什么要那样盯着我看?”根据分析,此句在意义上应该用进行时,又根据此句中的must have sensed和glanced at可知是过去进行时,故选C。

 

高考英语

高考英语考点——一般时

2019-12-5 9:55:53

高考英语

高考英语考点——完成时

2019-12-9 9:35:44

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