高考英语考点——一般时

考点解读

【命题解读】

动词的时态是历年高考的重点,也是高考的必考点。应特别注意以下几点:要把握各种时态的特点,注意易混淆时态间的差异;准确理解具体语境下时态的正确意义,捕捉句子中所隐含的时间信息;要克服汉语式的惯性思维,排除误导,培养发散性思维。

【命题预测】

预计2019年时态仍将是高考的重点和难点所在。高考主要以语法填空、短文改错等形式考查,动词的时态在语法填空和短文改错中是必考点。高考在考查时态的同时,还会兼顾其他语法内容的考查,比如各种从句、强调句、倒装句等,其交叉式和复合式的特点尤为明显。

【复习建议】  

  1. 了解并能正确运用常考的11种时态;
  2. 熟练运用现在完成时、现在完成进行时、一般过去时等高考高频时态;
  3. 掌握几种易混时态的区别,如现在完成时和一般过去时等。

动词时态的知识网络(以动词do为例)

考向一 一般现在时

1.表示客观事实或普通真理(不受时态限制)。

The geography teacher told us the earth moves around the sun.

地理老师告诉我们地球绕着太阳转。

Japan lies to the east of China. 日本位于中国的东方。

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 太阳东升西落。

2.表示现在经常或反复发生的动作或存在的状态,常和often,always,usually,sometimes,everyday,once a week等表示频率的时间状语连用。

He takes a walk after supper every day. 他每天晚饭后散步。

My mother works at the same company as my father.

我的母亲和父亲在同一家公司工作。

We always care for each other and help each other.

我们总是相互关心、相互帮助。

3.表示主语的特征、性格、能力等。

Mr Smith hates fish and never eats any.

史密斯先生讨厌鱼而且从来不吃鱼。

Mary speaks both English and French very well.

玛丽英语和法语都说得很好。

4.表示安排或计划好的肯定会出现的动作或状态。

The plane takes off at 10:00 a.m. 飞机上午10点起飞。

Tomorrow is Wednesday. 明天是星期三。

5.在时间、条件状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来的动作。

We will have to put off the sports meeting if it rains tomorrow.

如果明天下雨我们将不得不推迟会议。

I can’t leave unless my boss agrees. 除非老板同意,否则我不能走。

注意:

if 条件状语从句中可用shall 或will 表示意愿,但不表示时态。

If you will accept my invitation and come to our party, my family will be pleased.

如果你愿意接受我的邀请来参加我们的聚会,我的家人会很高兴。

【巧学妙记】

1.(2018·新课标卷I·语法填空)While running regularly can’t make you live forever, the review says it   64   (be) more effective at lengthening life   65(than)   walking, cycling or swimming.

【答案】is

【解析】考查动词的时态。医学报告显示:跑步比散步、骑车和游泳更能有效地延长寿命。这里叙述的是一个事实,故用一般现在时。故填is。

2.(2017·新课标卷II·短文改错)When summer came, they will invite their students pick the vegetables!

【答案】将came改为comes

【解析】考查时态。主句是是一般将来时,且本文全篇为一般现在时,故将came改为comes。#网

3.(2017·新课标卷I·语法填空)Fast food ___67___(be) full of fat and salt; by 68 (eating)   (eat) more fast food people will get more salt and fat than they need in their diet.

【答案】is

【解析】考查动词的时态和主谓一致。句意:快餐食物中满是脂肪和盐。fast food的意思是“快餐”,表示一类食物,为不可数名词,谓语动词用单数形式。故填is。

4.(2017·新课标卷III·语法填空)Sarah says, "My dad thinks I should take the offer now. But at the moment, school  69  (come) first. I don’t want to get too absorbed in modeling.

【答案】comes

【解析】考查动词的时态。根据语境可知Sarah认为当下应该是学业第一,说明现在的情况应该用一般现在时。

5.(2017·北京卷·单项填空)People______ better access to health care than they used to,and they’re living longer as a result.

A.will have B.have C. had D. had had

【答案】B

【解析】句意:人们有着比过去更好的医疗保健,所以他们更长寿。与过去对比是现在,所以than前一句话是用现在的时间,而且后一句用的就是现在时态,所以前面也用现在时态,故选B。

6.(2017·江苏卷·单项填空) He’s been informed that he ____________ for the scholarship because of his academic background.

  1. hasn’t qualified            B.hadn’t qualified
  2. doesn’t qualify D. wasn’t qualifying

【答案】 C

【解析】考查动词时态。句意:他已经被告知由于教育背景的原因而没有资格获得奖学金。qualify for sth达标,获得参赛资格;由于条件不满足而没有资格做某事,是客观事实,用一般现在时。故选C。

 

考向二 一般过去时

1.表示在过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常用yesterday,last year,in 1995,the other day等作时间状语。

It was a terrible piece of work you turned in yesterday. 你昨天上交的作业真是很糟糕。

He came to work here two weeks ago. 他两周前来这儿上班的。

2.表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。

When I was a child, I often played football in the street. 我小时候,经常在大街上踢足球。

Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome. Brown夫妇访问期间,不论走到哪里,都受到了热烈的欢迎。

3.用于固定句型中。

It is time you went to bed. 到了你上床睡觉的时间了。

I’d rather you came tomorrow. 我宁愿你明天来。

4.wish, wonder, think, hope等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等。

I thought you might have some. 我原以为你会有一些的。

Sorry, I didn’t see the sign over there. 对不起,我(刚才)没看见那边的指示牌。

5.在时间状语从句、条件状语从句中代替过去将来时。

He said he would not go if it rained. 他说要是下雨,他就不去。

6.有些句子,虽然没有明确的表示过去的时间状语,但实际上指的是过去发生的动作或状态,也要用一般过去时。常见的此类动词有know, think, expect等,表示"本来认为"。

I didn’t expect to meet you here. 我没想到会在这儿遇到你。

I thought he had heard the news. 我原以为他已经听说了这个消息。

常见考法:

  1. 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中用一般过去时表示过去将来;
  2. 没有时间状语时灵活选用一般过去时的情况;
  3. as if /as though引导的从句中用一般过去表示虚拟语气。

【误区提醒】

时间和条件状语从句中用错时态;没时间状语时习惯用一般现在时。

【巧学妙记】

 

1.(2018·新课标I卷·单项填空)During my last winter holiday, I went to (加the)countryside withmy father to visit my grandparents. I find a big change there.

【答案】find改成found

【解析】考查动词时态。根据文章中的Durnng my 1ast winter holday可知,事件发生在过去,故用一个过去时。故将find改成found。

2.(2018北京卷·单项填空)—Hi, I’m Peter. Are you new here? I haven’t seen you around?

—Hello, Peter. I’m Bob. I just _________ on Monday.

A.start B. have started

C.started D. had started

【答案】C

【解析】考查时态。句意:嗨, 我是彼得。你是新来的吗?我没有在附近见过你。一你好, 彼得。我是鲍勃。我周一刚刚开始住在这儿。根据两人谈话内容可知,Bob 现在在这儿,他开始(star)住在这儿是发生在周一的事情,周一是一个过去的时间,故该句应用般过去时态,C选项正确。

3.(2017·新课标卷I·短文改错)Before getting into the car, I thought I had learned the instructor’s orders, so(改为but/yet) once I started the car, my mind goes blank, I forgot what he had said to me altogether.

【答案】goes改为went

【解析】考查时态。根据前文中的started可知时态为一般过去时,故将goes改为went。

4.(2017·新课标卷II·语法填空)Later, engineers ___68___(manage) to construct railways in a system of deep tunnels (隧道), which became known to the tube.

【答案】managed

【解析】考查动词的时态。此处表示过去的情况,所以这里也应用一般过去时,故填managed。

5.(2017·北京卷·单项填空)—______ that company to see how they think of our product yesterday?

—Yes. They are happy with it.

A.Did you call    B. Have you called

C.Will you call   D. Were you calling

【答案】A

【解析】句意:——你昨天有没有给那家公司打电话问问他们对我们的产品感觉怎么样?——打了,他们对产品很满意。空格所在题干有一个很明显的时间状语yesterday,发生在过去,肯定用过去时,故选A。

 

考向三 一般将来时

1.一般将来时的定义

一般将来时表示在现在看来即将要发生的动作或存在的状态。常用时间副词tomorrow, soon或短语next year / week / month, in a few days, in the future, sometime 做状语。如:

What will you do this afternoon. 你今天下午干什么?

We will have a meeting tomorrow. 我们明天要开会。

He is going to study abroad next year. 明年他要出国学习。

2.一般将来时的结构及应用

(1) shall / will + 动词原形。表示即将发生的动作或存在的状态。特别是表示客观性的事情或在某条件下要发生的事情,只能用此结构。如:

What shall we do if he doesn’t come? 如果他不来,我们该怎么办?

Will you be free this evening? 今天晚上有空吗?

I think he will tell us the truth. 我想他会告诉我们真实情况的。

(2) be going to + 动词原形。表示已经计划或安排好了的事情,也可表示有迹象表明肯定要发生的事情。如:

We are going to have a meeting to discuss the matter this evening. 今天晚上开会讨论这件事情。

Look at the black clouds over there. I think it is going to rain soon. 看一看那边的乌云,我想天要下雨了。

There is going to be an English evening this week. 本周要举行一个英语晚会。

(3) be to + 动词原形。表示一种常规性的活动或注定要做的事情。如:

Who is to clean the classroom today? 今天该谁打扫教室了?

When are you to return your library book? 你什么时候要还图书?

The bridge is to be completed by the end of this year. 这渡桥该在今年年底前完工。

(4) be about to + 动词原形。表示就要做或正好要做的事情。往往暗含一种时间上的巧合,因此,句子不能再用时间状语。如:

Don’t leave. Li Lei is about to come. 不要走了,李蕾就要来了。

Be quiet. The concert is about to start. 安静下来,音乐演唱会就要开始了。

(5) be +现在分词。表示即将发生的动作或存在的状态。这个句型中动词主要是瞬间动词:come, go, leave, arrive, begin, start, stop, close, open, die, join, borrow, buy等。如:

Go ahead, and I’m coming. 走前面一点吧,我就来。

The dog is dying. 那条狗要死了。

Hurry up. The shop is closing. 快点,商店就要关门了。

(6)  一般现在时。表示一种严格按照计划进行的动作。比方说,上课、飞机起飞、火车离站等。如:

Don’t hurry. The meeting starts at a quarter past eight. 不要匆忙,回忆八点过一刻开始。

The bus goes back at four thirty. 汽车四点返回。

1.—Dr. Jackson is not in his office at the moment.

—All right. I___________ him later.

A.will call    B. have called

C.call   D will be calling

【答案】A

【解析】句意:——Dr. Jackson现在不在办公室。——好的,我待会再打给他。由later可知,表示的是将来要执行的动作,用一般将来时。故选A。

2.More expressways in Sichuan soon to promote the local economy.

A.are being built   B. will be built

C.have been built D. had been built

【答案】B

【解析】考查时态。本句为时态题,根据时间状语soon 可知,考查了将来时,且此处表示被动,故选择B.句意:四川将建设更多的高速公路以促进当地的经济。

【名师点睛】本题考查时态。英语中的时态是靠动词的变化来体现的,在具体做题时,需要关注的是时间状语。因此,考生在做本题时,需要先找出时间状语soon,然后才能准确判断时态是一般将来时。通过观察选项可知,选项A是现在进行时;选项B是一般将来时;选项C是现在完成时;选项D是过去完成时。故选择B。

3.As you go through this book, you ________ that each of the millions of people who lived through World War II had a different experience.

A.will find B. found

C.had found D. have found

【答案】A

【解析】一般将来时表示将要发生的动作或情况。在一般将来时的句子中,有时有表示将来时间的状语,有时没有时间状语,这时要从意思上判断是否指未来的动作或情况。句意:当你通读这本书的时候,你将会发现成千上万的经历过二战的每个人都有不同的经历。根据句意,判断主语的时态为一般将来时,故选A

【名师点睛】本题旨在考查句子的时态,要求学生明确地掌握各个时态的定义以及它们在时间上的划分段和用法。“助动词will或shall+动词原形”这一形式,表示将来发生的事情,用于征求对方的意见或表示客气的邀请。现在完成时表示到说话时为止(或到现在为止)已经发生或完成了(不一定结束)的动作或状态,共有四种主要用法:一、现在完成时表示影响;二、现在完成时表示持续;三、现在完成时表示重复;四、现在完成时表示将来。而在此题中As you go through this book是一个现在时了,所以后文就不能出现过去时或过去完成时。虽然在此题中没有明确的时间状语,但从意思上还是可以理解出来的。

4.Unless some extra money________, the theatre will be close.

A.was found B.finds

C.is found D. found

【答案】C

[解析]考查动词的时态和语态。句意:除非找到一些额外的钱,否则,剧院就倒闭了。根据主句的将来时态可知,状语从句用般现在时代替般将来时,因为find和money之间是被动关系,所以用一般现在时的被动语态。故洗C。

【名师点睛】本题考查一般现在时表将来和被动语态。Unless引导条件状语从句。表示让步、相似、比例的从句也必须用一般现在时表将来。如:

You will fail to arrive there in time unless you start earlier. 除非你早点动身,否则你就不能及时赶到那儿。

I’ll follow him wherever he goes. 他去哪儿,我就跟着去哪儿。

Whatever you say, I won’t pay. 无论你说什么,我都不会付钱。

Whether we help him or not, he will fail. 无论我们帮他与否,他都会失败。

The more you eat, the fatter you will become. 你吃得越多就会越胖。考生要注意归纳总结。

 

题组一 基础过关

单项填空

1.In the Himalayas, large tracks have been discovered which some people say ___________ the Wild Man.

A.belonging to B.belong to

C.are belonging to D.to belong to

2.Frank ___________ stamps in his spare time. It’s his hobby.

A.is collecting B.collects

C.collected D.was collecting

3.Honesty ___________ an important role in a child’s ability to succeed in school and later life.

A.played B.plays

C.had played D.has played

4.The dictionary still ___________ where I ___________ it moment ago.

A.lies;lay B.lied;lay

C.laid;laid D.lies;laid

5.Different types of teas ___________ by skilled tea-tasters before appearing in the Tea Trade Centre.

A.are tasted B.were tasted

C.tasted D.have tasted

 

6.Mary cleverly met the customer’s requirements that you ___________ to deal with, so she won the competition.

A.failed B.fail

C.,may fail D.must fail

7.My TV had just been repaired, so I ___________ to the pub to watch the World Cup final match last night.

A.needn’t had gone B.didn’t need to go

C.needn’t have gone D.mustn’t have gone

8.—My boss went to Beijing on business and ___________ me, a green hand, ___________ the company.

—He really believes in you! Don’t let him down.

A.left;in the charge of B.had left;in the charge of

C.left;in charge of D.had left;in charge of

9.—Hi, Michael, I heard you just came back from a holiday.

—Yes, I ___________ for a week in China and 5 days in India.

A.stayed B.have stayed

C.stay D.would stay

10—She’s upset for what you said.

—I ___________.

A.don’t mean any harm B.didn’t mean to hurt her

C.don’t mean to hurt her D.didn’t mean hurting her

 

题组二 能力提升

短文改错

Yesterday was my father’s birthday. We made many preparation for it. Early in the morning, my mother and I set off for the department store to find gift for Father. We chose very careful, eventually a warm sweater caught our eye but was purchased.

To showing my love for my father, I made a birthday cake under the help of my mother. In the evening, we got together to celebrate her birthday. With candles lit, we sang Happy Birthday out loud and clapped, that made the room alive with the sound of cheering.

Then we take a family photo to record the happy moment. When I saw tears of joy in Father’s eye, I was filled in with a feeling of accomplishment and happiness.

题组三 体验真题

1.(2018·全国新课标卷III·语法填空)True to a gorilla’s unaggressive nature, the huge animal ____69____(mean)me no real harm.

2.I still remember   59 visiting  (visit) a friend who’d lived here for five years and I   60  (shock) when I learnt she hadn’t cooked once in all that time.

3.(2016·全国新课标卷III﹒语法填空)Confucius believed knives would remind people of killings and   49  (be) too violent for use at the table.

4.【2016·全国新课标卷III﹒短文改错)They always tell me what to do and how to do it.

5.(2016·江苏)More efforts, as reported, ________in the years ahead to accelerate the supply-side structural reform.

A.are made B. will be made

C.are being made D. have been made

6.(2015·湖南卷·单项填空) That’s why I help brighten people’s days. If you ________, who’s to say that another person will?

A.didn’t    B. don’t

C. weren’t   D. haven’t

7.(2015·江苏卷·单项填空)The real reason why prices ____ , and still are, too high is complex, and no short discussion can satisfactorily explain this problem.

A.were            B. will be

C.have been           D. had been

8. (2015·重庆卷单项填空)—Is Peter coming?

—No, he____ his mind after a phone call at the last minute.

A.changes B. changed

C.was changing   D. had changed

 

题组一 基础过关

单项填空

1. B【解析】考查一般现在时。句意:在喜马拉雅,大型踪迹已经被发现,一-些人说这些踪迹是属于野人
的。which引导定语从句,指代large racks,在从句中作say后面的宾语从句的主语,空处是谓语,排除A、D两项; belong to不能用进行时,排除C项。故选B。

2. 【解析】考查时态。句意:Frank在他的空闲时间收集邮票。这是他的爱好。根据"It’s his hobby"可知,这是Frank经常做的事情,用一般现在时,故选B。

3.B  【解析】考查时态。句意:诚实对于一个孩子能否在学业上和以后的生活中取得成功起着重要的作用。这句话是客观事实用一般现在时。故选B。

4.D  【解析】考查动词。句意:那本字典仍然在刚才我放的地方。第一空表示"位于",应用动词lie;第二空表示"摆放",应用lay,其过去式是是laid,故选D项。

5.A  【解析】考查被动语态。句意:在出现在茶叶交易中心之前,不同类型的茶叶被品茶师品尝。teas和taste是被动关系,而且这句话表示客观事实,用一般现在时。故选A。

6.A  【解析】考查一般过去时。句意:Mary聪明地满足了你没有应付得来的顾客的要求,所以她赢得了比赛。that引导的是定语从句,不是同位语从句,不能用虚拟语气,根据Mary cleverly met可知用一般过去时。故选A。

7.B  【解析】考查时态。句意:我的电视已经被修好了,所以昨晚我没有必要去酒吧看世界杯决赛。因为时间是last night,这句话的谓语用一般过去时。故选B。

8. C 【[解析】考查时态和介词短语。该向中动词leave和went是并列的谓语动词,时态应一 致,故用lef;
in the charge of””由某人负责”,表被动意义; inchargef负责”,表主动意义,结合句意,应是”我
负责公司”,故选C项。

9.A  【解析】考查一般过去时。句意:——你好,Michael,我听说你刚刚度假回来。——是的,我在中国待了一周,在印度待了五天。根据语境,Michael度假回来了,在中国一周是过去的事情,用一般过去时。故选A。

1.B 【解析】考查动词时态以及动词的用法。句意:——你所说的让她有些难过。——我不是有意伤害她的。mean to do sth意为"打算做某事",mean doing sth意为"意味着做某事";再根据语境可判断出此处应用一般过去时,故选B。

题组二 能力提升

第一处:preparation改成preparations  make preparations for意为"为……做准备"。故把preparation改成preparations。

第二处:在find后面加a  gift是可数名词,这里泛指"一个礼物",用不定冠词,gift是辅音音素开头的单词。故在find后面加a。

第三处:careful改成carefully  修饰动词chose用副词。故把careful改成carefully。

第四处:but改成and  由语境可知,这里是递进关系而不是转折关系,故把but改成and。

第五处:showing改成show   这里是不定式作目的状语。故把showing改成show。

第六处:under改成with   with the help of意为"在……帮助下"。故把under改成with。

第七处:her改成his  由上文"my father’s birthday"可知这是爸爸的生日,用his。故把her改成his。

第八处:that改成which  这里是非限制性定语从句,用which指代上文内容,在定语从句中作主语,that不能引导非限制性定语从句。故把that改成which。

第九处:take改成took  本文的主体时态是一般过去时。故把take改成took。

第十处:去掉in  be filled with意为"充满了"。故去掉in。

题组三 体验真题

1.meant

【解析】分析本句的句子成分可知,本句缺少谓语,再根据总体时态可知要用一般过去时,所以用meant。

2.was shocked.

【解析】考查形容词。此处表示我感到很震惊。shock的主语是I,用形容词和系动词组成系表结构,表示过去发生的事,系动词用过去式。故填was shocked。

3.were

【解析】考查时态。根据句意可知,这里指的是刀子因太暴力而不适合在餐桌上使用,believed 后跟一个宾语从句,and连接了两个并列的谓语,主语kmives是复数,根据时态一致的原则,这里用般过去时, 故填
were。

4.tell → told

【解析】考查时态。短文通篇都是在回忆过去的事情,使用的是一般过去时,故把tell改为told。

5.B

【解析】根据句中的时间状语in the years ahead"在未来几年中"可知,本句应该使用一般将来时的被动语态。

6.B

【解析】考查动词的时态。根据主句中another person will可知,此处隐含将来的动作,但是条件状语从句中通常用现在时表示将来的动作。故选B。句意:这就是我为什么为别人的生活增添乐趣。如果你不这样做的话,天知道还会有谁做。

7.A

【解析】句意:过去和现在价格一 直居高不下的真正原因很复杂,简短的讨论解释这一 问题无法让人满意。根据题干中“and still are””的提示可知过去价格也居高不下,故用一般过去时,表示过去的状态。故选A项。

8.B

【解析】句意:"彼得来了吗?""没有,刚才接到一个电话后改变主意了。"根据at the last minute在最后一秒可能发生在过去,故用一般过去时。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

高考英语

高考英语考点——构词法

2019-12-4 9:34:50

高考英语

高考英语考点——进行时

2019-12-6 9:39:07

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