高考英语考点——动词和动词短语

考点解读

英语动词根据其意义和句法作用,可分为实义动词、连系动词、助动词和情态动词四大类。实义动词又称行为动词,为表示动作或状态的动词,可以单独充当句子的谓语,实义动词有及物动词和不及物动词两类。英语中的动词短语通常由动词加介词、副词、名词等构成,在句中起动词的作用。高考设题时往往都是给出四个不同的动词或短语来测试考生在具体语境中对动词短语词意的辨析及其理解和运用能力。

一 常用动词辨析

1.advise,persuade,suggest

advise用作及物动词,表示"劝告,忠告,建议",强调提醒或引起注意;

persuade表示"说服",强调劝说成功,主要搭配是:persuade sb.to do sth.说服某人做某事(相当于persuade sb. into doing sth.);如表示劝说但不一定成功,则使用try to persuade sb.to do sth.或advise sb.to do sth.。

suggest用作及物动词,意为"建议",后接名词、代词、动名词或从句,从句中的谓语用"should+动词原形",should可以省略。

2.bring,take,carry,fetch 

bring"带来,拿来,取来",强调从别处带人或物到说话人所在地。

take"拿走,带走",强调把人或物从说话者身边带走,方向与bring相反。

fetch"去拿来,去取来",强调从甲地出发到乙地取物或人后,又回到甲地,相当于go and bring。

carry"携带,搬运,运送",强调用人力或车辆把人或物从一地运到另一地。

3.win,beat,defeat 

win表示"赢得,战胜"时,宾语多是比赛项目等。win sb.则指"赢得人心"。

beat/defeat意为"打败,击败",其宾语只能是人或由人组成的机构。如:beat sb.打败某人;defeat their team/ the country/the enemy击败了他们的队/国家/敌人。

beat多用于表示在比赛或争论中战胜对手;

defeat多用于在战争中打败对手。

4.believe,believe in

believe表示"相信,认为",侧重于相信某人说的话或所做事情的真实性,其后可跟名词、代词、不定式的复合结构或宾语从句。

believe in表示"相信,信任,信仰,信奉",其后常接真理、宗教、原则之类的名词。

☞You should believe in yourself and believe that you will succeed one day. 你应该相信自己,并且相信某天你将会成功的。

5.book,order 

二者都有"订购,预订"之意,但book指订各种"票,座位";而order指"餐馆订饭、菜,定做衣服,订货"等,常用结构:place an order for sth. with sb.向某人订购某物。

对比:book a ticket/two seats/a double room订一张票/两个座位/一个双人间;order four dishes/ lunch要四个菜/订好午饭。

☞He booked a table for four and ordered six dishes. 他订了一张四人桌,并且要了六个菜。

6.choose,select,elect

choose表示"选择,挑选",有时也表示"推选,选举",但一般表示范围很小、普通的选择,没有elect正式。 select表示"(精心地)挑选,选定",具有"精选"之意。

elect表示"选举",指较大范围的正式的选举。

7.disturb,interrupt

disturb是及物动词,有"打扰,扰乱,使人心神不安"之意。常用短语:

disturb the sleeping child/one’s plan/the public peace打扰睡觉的孩子/打乱计划/扰乱社会治安;

be mentally disturbed精神上受到影响;be disturbed about对……感到不安。

interrupt有"打断,打扰"之意,侧重打断。常用短语:

interrupt the supplies中断供应

interrupt one’s speech打断演讲

8.hurt,injure,wound,harm 

hurt是一般用语,指精神或肉体上受到的伤害,有较强烈的"疼痛"意味;

injure比hurt更正式,常指意外事故对身体或精神上的"损害,损伤";

wound主要指外界暴力引起身体创伤,尤指战争中受的刀、枪、剑等伤;

harm指对人的肉体或精神带来伤害,特指伤及一个人或其心态、健康、权利、事业等,使之产生痛苦、损失或任何不幸遭遇。

9.miss,lose

miss意为"未能赶上(抓住),错过,失去,漏掉"。而lose意为"丢失,迷失方向,迷路"。

10.fit,be fit for,be fit to,suit

fit用作及物或不及物动词,表示"(衣服等)合适,使合身";

be fit for是形容词短语,表示"适合的,能胜任的",for后接名词或动名词;

befit to表示"适合,能胜任",to是动词不定式符号,后接动词原形。suit指颜色、款式的"适合",而fit指尺寸、大小的"合适"。

11.save,spare 

save意为"储蓄,节省",指把钱、时间及其他东西储蓄起来以备将来用,或指节省东西,避免浪费,也指"救命"。而spare意为"省",指细心地省下或节省钱、时间、力气等,常表示省出一部分以留作他用。

12.seat,sit 

seat是及物动词,意思是"使坐下",可以接人作宾语,还可以用于被动语态。常见搭配有:seat sb.使某人坐下;seat oneself自己坐下;be seated=sit down坐好。而sit是不及物动词,不能带宾语。

 

(2018·新课标I卷·完形填空)During my second year at the city college, I was told that the education department was offering a “free” course, called Thinking Chess, for three credits. I   41   the idea of taking the class because, after all, who doesn’t want to   42   a few dollars?

41.A. putforward B. jumped at C. tried out D. turned down

42.A. waste B. earn C. save D. pay

41.B【解析】考查动词短语辨析。我在大二时,学校教育处提供一种名叫思维象棋的免费课程,这个课程3个学分。我急于接收这个课程,是因为我想节省点钱。put forward提出,jumpedat急于接收; triedout尝试,turned down拒绝。故选B。
42.C【解析】考查动词辨析。我在大二时,学校教育处提供种名叫思维象 棋的免费课程,这个课程3个学分。我急于接收这个课程,是因为我想节省点钱。waste浪费; earn赚钱; save节省; pay付钱。故选C。

 

二 考查同根介词或副词动词短语的辨析

使用频率较高的这类动词有:call,cut,come,go,get,go,look,put,set,turn,take,pay,pick,make等。常见的介词或副词有:in,off,out,up,away,for,on,over等。

1.动词+ away构成的短语动词有: 

throw away扔掉 put away把……收拾好 give away捐赠,分发

carry away运走 run away 潜逃,跑开 go away 走开

2.动词+ for构成的短语动词有: 

answer for负责 provide for供给  all for要求

plan for打算,为……计划hope for希望,期待 ask for索取,寻找

send for派人去请 go for努力获取 pay for偿还,赔偿

3.动词+on构成的短语动词有:

try on试穿,试验 put on穿上,上演 have on穿着,戴着

pull on穿,戴 hold on不挂断,坚持,继续 carry on继续开展,坚持

keep on继续 go on继续 get on上(车)

4.动词+over构成的短语动词有: 

come over过来 hand over移交 go over仔细检查,复习

get over克服,恢复 look over检查 think over仔细考虑

take over接受,接管 hand over 移交 turn over翻转

5.动词+ up构成的短语动词有: 

bring up抚育,培养 call up召唤,打电话给 come up走上前来,长出

cut up切碎 fix up修理 give up放弃;go up 上升,增长

grow up 长大 look up尊敬,向上看,查寻 make up虚构,弥补,组成

put up举起,搭建 set up建立,创(纪录) pick up 捡起,(开车)接某人,偶然得到

send up发射 show up 揭露,露面 turn up出现,把……调高一点

 

1.(2018·江苏卷·完形填空)Raynor Winn and her husband Moth became homeless due to their wrong investment. Their savings had been___36___to pay lawyers’ fees.

A.drawn up B. used up C. backed up     D. kept up

【答案】B

【解析】考查动词短语以及对语境的理解。A drawnup起草; B. used up用光; C. backed up拥堵; D. kept up保持。根据后面的to pay lawyers’ fees提示可知,他们的积蓄都用光了。故选B。

2. (2018天津卷·单项填空)At first Robert wouldn’t let his daughter go diving, but eventually he___________ as she was so confidence about her skills.

A.gave in B. dressed up

B.broke in D. turned up

【答案】A【解析】考查动词短语词义辨析及语境理解。句意:起初,罗伯特不愿让他女儿去潜水,但最终他让步了,因为她对她的技能是如此的有把握。Agavein屈服,让步,B. dressedup打扮; C. brokein闯入;打断; D.turned up出现。根据转折词but及原因asshe was so confident about her skills. 可知,最终他让步了。故选A。

3.(2017·江苏卷·完形填空)In his first years of high school, Gabriel would look pityingly at music students,   36struggling    across the campus with their heavy instrument cases,     37       at school for practice hours    38(before)   anyone else had to be there.

A.rising up          B. coming up        C. driving up      D. turning up

【答案】D

【解析】考查动词短语。根据"    37    at school for practice hours    38    anyone else"可知,学习音乐的同学需要比不学音乐的早到学校几个小时,为了练习弹奏乐器。turn up在"出现",符合语境。

 

6.动词+out构成的短语动词有:

come out出来 go out出去,熄灭 look out留神,当心

walk out走出 set out出发,开始 put out扑灭,生产

give out发出,发表 hand out分发 pick out挑选

find out找出,发现 speak out大声地说 turn out生产,结果是

get out出去,离开 carry out实行,执行 work out计算出,解决,实行,行得通

bring out出版 start out 出发,动身。

(2017·江苏卷·单项填空)Working with the medical team in Africa has ____________ the best in her as a doctor.

A.held out        B. brought out        C. picked out      D. given out

【答案】B

【解析】考查短语辨析。hold out坚持;提供机会;伸出手; B. bring out使显现,阐明,出版;C. pick out使容易看见,找出精心挑选,认出来;D. give out用完,停止运行,分发,发出,公布。句意:在非洲同医疗队一起工作已经使她表现出了最好的一面。这里取"使显现"之意,故选B。

 

三 常见同根动词短语辨析

1.bring 

bring in引进,挣得 bring about引起,导致

bring up养育,培养,呕吐,提出 bring out使展现,推出(书等)

bring down降低,使倒下 bring back把……带回来,使忆起

bring forth结果,生产,产生 bring forward提出,提前

bring off圆满完成(困难之事)

2.break 

break down崩溃,瓦解,垮掉,失败,分解 break up打碎,分解,分开,结束,制止

break through逾越,突破,冲破 break away(from)挣脱,脱离

break out爆发 break in破门而入

break into进入建筑物以便行窃,突然发出,打扰   break off折断,中断

3.come

come about发生 come out结果出来,出版,开花

come across偶遇,被理解 come true变为现实

come up走上前,被提出,走近 come along一起来

come up with产生,发现(解决办法等)

4.give 

give up放弃 give in屈服,呈交

give out 用尽,耗尽,分发,公布,发表

give off发出    give away颁发,赠送,送掉,捐赠

5.go 

go against违背,与……不符,对……不利 go without勉强维持,凑合

go in for爱好,参加,从事 go by过去,依据,按照

go on继续,发生 go over复习,仔细审查,走近

go ahead 进行 go through 从头到尾地阅读,经历

go away走开,外出度假,消失 go for去取来或接来,争取得到

6.keep

keep away(from)使远离 keep back 扣除,保留,隐瞒不讲

keep off 避开 keep on继续

keep out 挡在外边,请勿靠近 keep up保持,不低落,持续,继续

keep up with跟上 keep down抑制(以防其增长)

7.look

look ahead向前看 look about环顾

look back回忆,回顾 look out当心,找出

look up向上看,查阅,看望 look down upon看不起

look through翻阅 look into调查,向内看

look after照看,负责处理 look on旁观

look forward to盼望 look round寻找,边走边看,观光

8.put

put back放回原处,拨回,阻碍,推迟 put down平定,镇压,记下

put away将事物放置于惯常保存之处,储蓄 put forward提出(计划、建议),拨快,提前

put off延期 put on穿戴,上映

put out扑灭,生产 put up举起,张贴

9.take 

take in吸收 take for 误认为

take out 拿出 take down 放下

take up从事,拿起,占据 take off 飞机起飞,脱下,休假,成功

take by攻占 take after像

take along 随身携带 take away带走,拿走,使离去

take back 收回,退回(所购商品) take charge 负责,掌管

take on呈现,雇佣 take out拿出,带……出去

take over 接管,接任

 

1.(2018·江苏卷·单项填空) Developing the Yangtze River Economic Belt is a systematic project which _______ a clear road map and timetable.

A.calls for B. calls on

C.calls off D. calls up

【答案】A

【解析】考查动词短语词义辨析及语境理解。句意:发展长江经济带是一项需要清晰的路线图和时间表的系统工程。A. calls for需要;B. calls on号召;C. calls off取消;D. calls up使想起。故选A。

2.The general manager has to retire due to his illness. Who do you think will ________the business?

A.take in take up C. take on D. take over

【答案】D

 

10.turn 

turn back折回,掉转头 turn away转身,走开,打发走 turn out结果是,赶出,生产,制造

turn down 拒绝,调小 turn off 关掉 turn over翻过来,移交

turn in上交(作业等),拐入  turn into变成,翻译  turn on打开,取决于

turn to求助于,翻到 turn up调大,出现

 

Tom had to______ the invitation to the party last weekend because he was too busy.

A.turn in B. turn down

C.turn over D. turn to

【答案】B

【解析】句意:上个周汤姆不得不拒绝宴会的邀请,因为他太忙了。turn in 上交; turn down拒绝; turn over 移交; turn to求助。根据句意可知选B。

 

题组一 基础过关

I.单项填空

1.A sign of a liar is that his eyes are always __________, that’s to say, he doesn’t dare to look into your eyes.

A.disagreeing B.wondering C. reflecting D. wandering

2.The government will set up a group to__________ways to improve the people’s living standard.

A.run into B.get into C. look into D. break into

3.The visiting president answered journalists’ questions, saying the two countries should seek common ground and __________differences on many problems.

A.examine B.explore C. assume D. reserve

4.You might__________deer or horses as you walk through the farmland, where many animals live.

A.come up B.come through

C.come across D.come over

5.We all__________Wang Yaping as an example of a woman who managed to fulfil her dream.

A.look forward to B.look back

C.look up to D.look over

 

6.They kept trying, and their efforts finally __________.

A.make it B.paid off

C.are made it D.are paid off

7.In Britain today, women__________44% of the workforce, and nearly half the mothers with children are in paid work.

A.take up B.make up

C.pick up D.give up

8.—It’s a good idea. But who’s going to __________the plan?

—I think Tom and Mike will.

A.carry out B.get through

C.take in D.set aside

9.As a student, I want to use my creativity to__________ possible solutions to the problems I meet with.

A.explain B. express C. ignore D. explore

10.The policy of reducing the price of bus services provides you with a cheap way to __________.

A.get through B.get across

C.get over D.get around

 

 

题组二 体验真题

1. (2017天津卷·单项填空)Mr. and Mrs. Brown would like to see their daughter ___________, get married, and have kids.

A.settled down     B. keep off     C. get up      D. cut in

2.(2017·天津卷·完形填空)I was filled with the fear that I would 28   the same difficulties that beat me before

A..get over       B. run into       C. look for       D. put aside

3.(2017·新课标1卷·完形填空)After that, feeling the need to52    further, I decided to drop in on one of ASL club’s meetings. I only learned how to    53    the alphabet that day.

52.A. exercise B. explore C. express D. explain

53.A. print B. write C. sign D. count

4.(2016·江苏)He did not _________ easily, but was willing to accept any constructive advice for a worthy cause.

A.approach B.wrestle

C.compromise D.communicate

5.(2016·江苏)Many businesses started up by college students have________ thanks to the comfortable climate for business creation.

A.fallen off B.taken off

C.turned off D.left off

 

6.(2016·江苏)Parents should actively urge their children to______ the opportunity to join sports teams.

A.gain admission to B. keep track of

C.take advantage of  D. give rise to

7.(2016·天津)Mary was silent during the early part of the discussion but finally she ____ her opinion on the subject.

A.gave voice to          B. kept an eye on

C.turned a deaf ear of    D. set foot on

8.(2016·天津)I’m going to _____ advantage of this tour to explore the history of the castle.

A.put         B. make

C.take        D. give

9.(2016·天津)I hate it when she calls me at work—I’m always too busy to _____ a conversation with her.

A.carry on     B. break into

C.turn down      D. cut off

10.(2016·浙江)We can achieve a lot when we learn to let our differences unite , rather than _______ us.

A.divide        B. reject

C.control            D. abandon

 

单项填空

1.D 【解析】考查动词辨析。句意:说谎者的一个标志是 他的眼睛总是游离不定,也就是说,他不敢直视你的眼睛。disagree”不同意”; wonder”想知道”; reflect”反射”; wander”徘徊,漫步,走神”。
故选D。

2.C  【解析】考查动词短语辨析。句意:政府将成立一个组去研究提高人民生活水平的方法。run into"偶然遇见";get into"进入";look into"调查,研究";break into"闯入"。

3.D  【解析】考查动词辨析。句意:来访的总统在答记者问时说,在许多问题上,两国应当求同存异。examine"检查";explore"探索":assume"假设";reserve"保留"。

4.C 【解析】考查动词短语辨析。句意:在穿过农场时,你可能会碰到鹿或马,那儿有很多动物。come up"出现,到来";come through"安然度过";come across"(偶然)碰见";come over"来访,拜访"。

5.C 【解析】考查动词短语辨析。句意:王亚平作为一个妇女的典范受到我们所有人的尊敬,她努力实现了自己的梦想。look up to sb.表示"尊敬某人"。

6.B  【解析】考查动词短语辨析。句意:他们一直努力,而且他们的努力终于奏效了。make it"成功,到达",无被动形式,排除C项;A项时态错误;pay off意为"(计划等)奏效"时,也没有被动形式。故选B项。

7.B  【解析】考查动词短语辨析。句意:如今的英国劳动力中,女性占了44%,而且近一半的有孩子的母亲在工作赚钱。make up"构成",符合句意。take up"开始从事(新的工作),占据(一定的时间或空间)"; pick up"捡起,接收";give up"放弃"。

8.A【解析】考查动词短语的辨析。句意:那是一 一个好主意,但是谁将去执行这个计划呢? 我认为Tom和Mike可以。表示”执行”应该用carry out;而get through意为”接通,顺利通过”,take in意为”吸入,欺骗’,setaside意为”把 放到一边”,都不符合语境。

9.D 【解析】考查动词辨析。explain"解释";express"表达";ignore"忽略";explore"探索"。句意:作为一名学生,我想用我的创造力去探索可能的方式来解决我遇到的问题。

10.D  【解析】考查动词短语辨析。get through"通过,到达,做完,接通电话,熬过(困难时期等)";get across"(使)被了解";get over"克服,恢复";get around"到处走动,传播"。句意:降低公交服务价格的政策给你提供了一种便宜的方式去旅游。

题组二体验真题

1.A  【解析】句意:布朗先生和夫人想要看到他们的女儿安顿下来,结婚生子。A. 安顿下来;B. 远离;C.起床;D. 插嘴。根据句意,故选A。

2.B 【解析】根据上文fear和下文the same difficulties that beat me before可知,我充满了恐惧,害怕遇到以前打败我的同样的困难。A. 克服,战胜;B. 遇到;C. 寻找;D. 把……放到一边。故选B。

3.52. B  考查动词辨析。exercise锻炼;explore探索;express表达;explain解释。句意:在那之后,我感觉到想要探索更多(关于手语的东西),于是我决定参加ASL 俱乐部的一次会议。故选B。

53.C 考查动词辨析。print打印;write写;sign签名,打手语;count数。句意:那天我只学会了打字母表的手语。分析语境可知作者第一次参加手语俱乐部的会议,学会的应该是最基本的打字母表的手语。故选C。

4.C 【解析】考查动词辨析。动词approach靠近,接近;wrestle摔跤,斗争,努力解决;compromise妥协;和解;让步;communicate交流;句意:他不容易妥协,但是对于正义的事业,他愿意接受任何建设性的建议。根据句意可知C项正确。

5.B 【解析】考查动词短语辨析。fall off跌落,下降;take off起飞,成功,受欢迎;turn off关闭;leave off停止,中断。句意:由于良好的创业环境,很多大学生创办的生意都很成功。根据句意可知B正确。

6.C 【解析】考查短语辨析。动词短语gain admission to 获准进入;keep track of记录;take advantage of利用;give rise to引起;句意:父母亲应该积极鼓励孩子抓住机会参加体育活动。根据句意可知C项正确。

7.A 【解析】句意:玛丽在讨论的前一部分是沉默的,但是最后她说出自己对这个话题的观点。A. 将……说出,透露,表明;B. 注意,照看;C.对……充耳不闻;D.踏上。根据语境,故选A。

8.C 【解析】句意:我要利用这次旅行来探索这个城堡的历史。take advantageof,意为”利用”,其他选项不能和advantage of搭配。故选C。
9.A 【解析】句意:我讨厌她在上班的时候给我打电话。我总是太忙了不能和她进行谈话。A.进行; B.破门而入; C.拒绝,声音调低; D.切断。故选A。

10.A 【解析】句意:当我们学会让我们的差异联合起来而不是将我们分离的时候,我们就获得很多。A. 将……分开;B. 拒绝,拒收;C.控制;D.放弃。根据语境,故选A。

 

高考英语

高考英语考点——形容词和副词

2019-12-2 10:31:41

高考英语

高考英语考点——构词法

2019-12-4 9:34:50

0 条回复 A文章作者 M管理员
    暂无讨论,说说你的看法吧
个人中心
购物车
优惠劵
今日签到
有新私信 私信列表
有新消息 消息中心
搜索