高考英语考点——介词和介词短语

考点解读

【命题解读】

介词在英语中比较活跃,然而在高考中直接考查介词的题不是很多,但是介词却是考生最容易犯错误的语法项目之一。

【命题预测】

预计2019年高考对介词的考查将不再局限于单个介词,将会更加注重对介词固定搭配中的介词的考查,精细化考查介词短语的辨析。在学习介词时,应重点掌握介词的基本用法,同时注意总结其与名词、形容词、副词、动词等搭配构成的短语的意思和用法。

【复习建议】

  1. 掌握介词的常见用法及易混介词的辨析;
  2. 掌握介词与其他词所构成的一些固定短语;
  3. 掌握在定语从句中介词的使用情况。

介词的分类

考向① 介词短语的功能

介词不能独立在句中做成份,介词后必须与名词、代词、或动名词构成介词短语在句中充当一个成分,表示人、物、事件等与其它人、物、事件等之间的关系。

考向② 常考介词的辨析

介词是英语中最活跃的词类之一,使用频率相当高,其用法跟冠词一样复杂。但根据近年来高考命题的情况来看,考生需要掌握以下内容。

1.表示相同或相似概念的介词(短语)的区别

1.(2017·新课标卷I·短文改错)At the end of our trip, I told my father that I planned to return for every two years, he agreed.

【答案】删除for

【解析】时间名词有every,each,last等词修饰时,其前不用介词。故删除for。

2.(2017·新课标卷III·语法填空)I was searching ___67___these three western lowland gorillas I’d been observing.

【答案】for

【解析】考查动词短语搭配。search for是固定搭配,表示“寻找”,表示“我”在寻找“我”研究的三只
西部低地大猩猩。

3.(2017·北京·单项填空)Many people who live along the coast make a living _______ fishing industry.

A.at   B. in    C. on   D. by

【答案】B

【解析】句意:许多住在海边上的人都是靠渔业来谋生的。此处用介词in,不用by,因为by后面通常接做什么事情来谋生,此处是指在捕鱼这个行业里,在这个行业里谋生,用in,故选B。

4.(2017·江苏·单项填空)Determining where we are ____________ our surroundings remains an essential skill for our survival.

A.in contrast to             B. in defense of

C.in face of         D. in relation to

【答案】D

【解析】考查介词短语。A in contrast to对比,截然不同; B. in defense of .为…..护; C. in face of面对;D. inrelationto ….有关。句意:根据周围的环境辨别方位仍然是我们生存的一项极其重要的技能。故选D。

  1. (2017·北京·单项填空)When you drive through the Redwood Forests in California, you will be ___________ trees that are over 1,000 years old.
  2. among     B. against     C. behind     D. below

【答案】A

【解析】句意:当你开车穿过加利福尼亚的红木森林时,你将会穿梭于超过千年历史的树木之间。be among 位于……之间;be against 反对;be behind 在……后面;be below在……之下。根据句意,故选A。

6.(2017·新课标II卷·语法填空)It ran for just under seven kilometers and allowed people to avoid terrible __crowds__(crowd) on the roads above as they travelled to and ___62__ work.

【答案】A from

【解析】考查介词,to and from来回,故填from。

2.常见同一形容词与不同介词搭配时意义上的差别

3.容易混淆的含有介词固定搭配的词组

【难点释疑】

一、常用介词辨异

1.about,on,of  关于

①on多用于慎重的、正式的语言交际场合。常见于"学术上"的"论文"或"演说"等题目,可供专门研究这一问题的人阅读,有"论及"之意。

②about表示的内容多为普遍、不那么正式,有"述及"之意。

③of作"关于"讲,表示提及、涉及某人(事)时,只表示事情存在或发生,并不涉及详情;有时与about意义相近,但有时意义很不同,常与动词know、hear、learn(听说)、speak、talk、think、tell等连用。

 

2.except,except for,except that,but,besides,beside

①except"除……之外",指不包括……,后面常接名词、代词(人称代词常用宾格),还可接介词短语、副词和动词不定式,此时相当于but,但不定式常不带to。

②except for"除了,只有",意思和except一样,主要指说明基本情况后,而在细节上加以修正,后面常接名词性短语。

③except that"除了,只是",意思和except、except for一样。但在用法上,其后常接名词性从句,也可接when、where等词引导的其他从句。

④but所含"除……外"的意思不如except明确。but多用在代词(主要是不定代词、否定代词和疑问代词)之后。

⑤besides表示"除……外还有",所排除的事物常包括在所述范围之内。另外,besides可用作副词,相当于also,有"而且,加之,何况"之意。

⑥beside也是介词,表示"在附近",只不过形似besides,容易相互混淆。

如果在区别前后有同类的词语时,就用except,否则就用except for。

 

3.including,included

①including是一个介词,意为"包括",它一般放在包括对象的前面。

②included是一个过去分词,意为"包括"。它一般用于被动语态中,也可放在包括对象的后面。

 

4.in,later,during  都与时段名词搭配

①in作介词,同时段名词搭配,即"in + 时段名词",一般用于将来时。

②later表示"……以后",常同时段名词搭配,即"时段名词 + later",常与过去时连用。

③during作介词时,同时段名词搭配,即"during + 时段名词",常与现在时或将来时等连用。

 

5.in,with,by 用

①with通常指"用"具体的或有形的工具、器官等,有时也表示"用"某种手段、音调等。

②by作介词表示"用"时,一般指"用"方式、手段等。后面常接动名词或名词,后面接名词时,该名词前面一般不加修饰语。

③in指"用"语言、字体、墨水、体裁、风格、方式、现金、顺序等。

 

二、介词的省略

1.当表示时间的词前有this,that,next,last,every,each,some,any,all等时,介词常省略。

Come any day you like. 你想哪天来就哪天来。

2.表示时间的名词前有不定冠词,且不定冠词作"每一……"解时,前面不用介词。

An apple a day keeps the doctor away. 每天吃一个苹果,医生不找我。

3.习惯搭配中介词的省略

一些常和动词、名词或形容词搭配的介词常省略,常见的此类搭配有:spend money/time (in) doing sth,waste money/time (in) doing sth,have difficulty/trouble (in) doing sth,be busy doing sth,stop/prevent sb (from) doing sth等。

 

三、介词不可遗漏的情况

1.含有不及物动词的不定式在形容词easy,hard,difficult,comfortable等后作状语,且构成不定式的动词与句子的主语存在动宾关系或主语是不定式动作发生的地点时,介词不能遗漏。

The chair is comfortable to sit on/in. 这把椅子坐着舒服。

The man is difficult to work with. 这个人很难共事。

2.当非谓语动词表示被动意义时,相关介词也不可省略。

The problem is well worth paying attention to. 这个问题很值得关注。

3.在被动语态中,动词短语中的介词不能遗漏。

Your pronunciation should be paid attention to. 你应该注意你的发音。

4.在定语从句中,当从句的谓语和先行词构成动宾关系且从句谓语为不及物动词时,必须加上介词。

The library which we often go to is not far away from our school. 我们经常去的那个图书馆离我们的学校不远。

5.在too…to…,enough… to…,so… as to…等结构中,含有不及物动词的不定式作结果状语,构成不定式的动词为不及物动词,且该动词与主语构成动宾关系或主语为不定式动作发生的地点时,介词不能遗漏。

The ice is too thin to skate on. 冰太薄了,不能在上面滑。

 

题组一 基础过关

单句改错

  1. I lent to her some money in order that she could go for a holiday.

_________________________________________________________________________

  1. Joe wasted a lot time before he got down to work.

_________________________________________________________________________

  1. The biggest problem was in that almost all communication systems were destroyed.

_________________________________________________________________________

  1. Only a few months ago, this area suffered by the worst drought in a century.

_________________________________________________________________________

  1. It was very kind for them to invite me to visit their country.

_________________________________________________________________________

  1. Appreciate and honor what you have instead focusing on what you do not.

_________________________________________________________________________

  1. The boy wanted to join in the army but was turned down because he was under age.

_________________________________________________________________________

  1. I just couldn’t laugh to his jokes the way I used to.

________________________________________________________________________

 

题组二 能力提升

I.单项填空

1.This experience teaches me a lesson: Never judge a person simply ________ the first impression.

A.in the form of B. with the help of

C.on the basis of D.in case of

2.It was quite________ me why people preferred to go to the island on such a cold night.

A.against B.over

C.beyond D.above

3.________ our disagreements, we have been able to find some common ground.

A.Beyond B.For

C.Despite D.By

4.Sometimes it’s tough to get off the couch and go for a run. With so many digital devices at your fingertips, how can you possibly keep________?

A.in turn B.in shape

C.in return D.in charge

5.I feel that one of my main duties ________a teacher is to help the students to become better learners.

A.for B.like

C.as D. with

 

6.These comments came           specific questions often asked by local newsmen.

A.in memory of        B. in response to

C.in touch with       D. in possession of

7.Most people work because it’s unavoidable.          , there are some people who actually enjoy work.

A.As a result        B. In addition

C.By contrast          D. In conclusion

8.A common memory they all have_______ their school days is the school uniform.

A.of B. on C. to D. with

9.Human life is regarded as part of nature and, as such, the only way for us to survive is to live_________nature.

A.in view of B. in need of

C.in touch with   D. in harmony with

10.Many of the things we now benefit from would not be around _______ Thomas Edison.

A.thanks to           B. regardless of

B.aside from           D. but for

 

II.语篇填空

As I walked __1__the city streets,I passed a young man searching through a small block of land that contained a mix of leaves and rubbish. I was somewhat puzzled why someone __2__him would be searching through rubbish. Finding this a little odd,I asked him,"What are you searching __3__?" He replied very simply that he was looking for money.

After talking __4__him for a little longer,I found out that he had become homeless after getting laid __5__ from his job. Since then,he had been working __6__ part-time jobs in a doctor’s office and in a food bank to earn some money. But he made so little that he lost heart. The man seemed fairly talented,although he was a little dirty.

I told him that our thoughts create our reality,and I suggested that he not give __7__ and think __8__ a positive way. During the  whole talk,what I stressed was that he was young and that everything was possible. Although he didn’t respond __9__ the spot,my sense told me that what I said seemed to have an effect __10__ him.

 

题组三 体验真题

1.(2018·新课标卷II·完形填空)I still can’t believe what a   coincidence it was. I’m just so glad I was there   ___60___to help my son.

A.on board B. in time C. for sure     D. on purpose

2.(2018·新课标卷II·短文改错)They would say to methat playing card games would help my brain. Still I was unwilling to play the games for them sometimes.

3.(2018·北京卷·单项填空)—Good morning, Mr. Lee’s office.

—Good morning. I’d like to make an appointment _________ next Wednesday afternoon.

A.for B. on C. in     D. at

4.(2018江苏卷·单项填空)China’s soft power grows _______ the increasing appreciation and understanding of China globally.

A.in line with B. in reply to

C.in return for D. in honour of

5. Bob thought he couldn’t go to the party because he had to write a report, but he went ___________.

A.at first B. after all

C.above all D. at random

 

6.(2017·天津·单项填空)We offer an excellent education to our students. ___________, we expect students to work hard.

A.On average      B. At best

C.In return     D. After all

7.(2017·天津·完形填空)… My goal was to lose 150 pounds in one year and raise $50,000   25   a movement founded 30 years ago to end hunger.

A.in search of     B. in need of

C.in place of     D. in support of

8.(2017·新课标I卷·语法填空)There has been a recent trend in the food service industry toward lower fat content and less salt. This trend, which was started by the medical community(医学界)    a method of fighting heart disease, has had some unintended side   (effects)   (effect) such as overweight and heart disease — the very thing the medical community was trying to fight.

9.(2017·新课标I卷·短文改错)It was a relief and I came to a suddenly stop just in the middle on the road.

10.(2017·新课标II卷·短文改错)They have also bought for some gardening tools. beside, they often get some useful information from the internet.

11.(2016·天津卷·单项填空)The dictionary is ______: many words have been added to the language since it was published.

A.out of control B. out of date

B.out of sight D. out of reach

12.(2016·浙江卷·单项填空)The study suggests that the cultures we grow up _______ influence the basic processes by which we see world around us.

A.on B. in C. at D. about

13.(2016·全国新课标卷II·语法填空)Most of us are more focused   44   our tasks in the morning than we are later in the day.

14.(2016·浙江)That young man is honest , cooperative , always there when you need his help .______, he’s reliable.

A.Or else        B. In short

C.By the way           D. For one thing

15.(2015·重庆)Last year was the warmest year on record, with global temperature 0.68 ℃____ the average.

A.below B. on         C. at            D. above

 

题组一基础过关

单句改错

1.去掉to 【解析】句意:我借给她一些钱,以便她能去度假。动词lend后可接双宾语,所以to多余。

2.在time 前加of 【解析】句意:乔在开始工作前浪费了不少时间。a lot of为固定用法,意为"许多",后接可数名词复数形式或不可数名词。注意:a lot为副词短语,表程度。

3.去掉in 【解析】句意:最大的难题是,几乎所有的通讯系统都被破坏了。根据语境及句子结构可知,句中用that引导表语从句。

4.by → from 【解析】句意:仅在几个月前,这个地区遭受了一次本世纪以来最为严重的旱灾。suffer from为固定用法,意为"忍受,遭受"。

5.for→of 【解析】句意:他们很好,邀请我访问他们的国家。”It’s kind of sb to do sth”为固定句型。注意:在”Itiswas + adj. +offor sb to do”句型中,当形容词为easy, hard, difficult, possible, important,necessary等时用介词for,而当形容词为描述人的品德及特征的kind, polite, nice, wise, clever, silly,foolish等时用介词of。

6.在instead后加of 【解析】句意:感激并且尊重你所拥有的,而不是将注意力放在你没有的东西上。instead of 为复合介词,意为"而不是"。

7.去掉in 【解析】句意:这个男孩想参军,但因为年纪小被拒绝了。join表示"参加,加入(某个组织)"时,后面不加介词in;表示"参加(某项活动)"时,才加 in。

8.第一个to → at 【解析】句意:我就是不能像以前那样因他讲的笑话而发笑。laugh at为固定搭配,意为"嘲笑,因……而发笑"。

 

题组二能力提升

 I.单项填空

1.C  【解析】考查介词短语辨析。in the form of"以……的形式",with the help of"在……的帮助下",on the basis of "以……为基础",in case of"如果,假使"。结合语境可知选C。

2.C   【解析】考查介词。句意:我很不理解为什么人们愿意在那样冷的一个晚上登那个岛。against"反对",over"翻越,在……上面",above"在……上面,超过",均不符合句意。be beyond sb."某人无法理解",符合句意,故选C。

3.C  【解析】考查介词的用法。句意:尽管我们存在分歧,但仍能找到一些共同点。despite"即使,尽管",符合句意。

4.B  【解析】考查介词短语辨析。句意:有时,很难从沙发上站起来,稍微活动一下。手边有那么多数码设备,你怎么可能保持健康呢?in shape"健康",符合句意。in turn"轮流,相应地";in return

"作为回报";in charge"负责"。

5.C  【解析】句意:我觉得作为教师,其主要职责之一就是帮助学生成为更好的学习者。as作介词有"作为"的意思,符合语境。

 

6.B  【解析】句意:这些评论是对某些经常被当地新闻人问到的问题的回应。in memory of纪念; in response to回应; in touch with联系;in possession of拥有。分析句子成分知道空格处充当介词短语作状语的作用,根据常识和句意,评论应该是对问题的回应。所以答案是B。

7.C解析]句意:很多人工作是因为这是不可避免的,相反,有一些人是的确喜欢工作的。根据前后的
意思,可以知道前后是表示对比。As a result意为结果,In addition意为此外, By contrast 意为相反,In conclusion意为结论。”不可避免”表述到一种无奈,也就是说,很多人是不得不工作的。后句的表达是”事实上有些人喜欢工作”,”喜欢”和”不得不”刚好构成一种否定,所以选C。

8.A  【解析】考查介词辨析。of关于,表示从属关系; on表示在……之上; to表示对于; with表示和……在一起。句意:他们共有的关于他们学校的记忆是校服。have a memory of对……有记忆,是固定短语,故选A。

9.D   【解析】考查短语辨析。 in view of在……眼里; in need of需要; in touch with和……接触; In harmony with与……和谐相处。这四个短语后面都应该接名词,该句意思为:人的生活是自然的一部分,因此,我们生存下来的唯一的方法就是与自然和谐相处。根据句意,故选D。

10.D  【解析】句意:要不是爱迪生的发明,今天我们身边享用的很多东西都将不复存在。thanks to "多亏",具有很强的迷惑性,如将题干改成"_____ Thomas  Edison, now we can benefit from many of the things  around us."则选A项;B项"不管,不顾";C项"除了";D项"要不是",常用于隐藏式(含蓄式)虚拟条件句。故选D项。

 

II.语篇填空

1.along/down  2.like  3.for  4.with  5.off

6.on  7.up  8.in  9.on  10.on

题组三体验真题

1.B【解析】考查介词词组词义辨析。我高兴的是我在那儿及时帮助了我的儿子。A. on board在船上;B. in time及时;C. for sure肯定;D. on purpose目的。故选B项切题。

2.for改为with  【解析】考查介词。play the games with sb.表示“和某人一块玩游戏”,故把for改为with。

3.A 【解析】考查介词。句意:——早上好,Lee先生办公室。——早上好。我想预约下周三下午(和Mr. Lee见面)。make an appointment for意为“为……预约”,是固定搭配,故A选项正确。

4.A  【解析】考查介词短语词义辨析及语境理解。句意:中国的软实力增长与日俱增全球对中国的赏识和理解相一致。A. in line with按照;与…一致;B. in reply to答复;C. in return for作为 … 的报酬;D. in honour of为纪念。故选A。

5.B【解析】考查介词短语辨析及语境理解。句意:鲍勃认为他不能去参加聚会,因为他不得不写- – 份报告,但他终究去了。A atfirst起初; B. after all毕竟,终究。C. above all首先; D. at random随便地。根据前面的转折连词可知,与前面情况相反,故选B。

 

6.C 【解析】句意:我们给我们的学生们提供极好的教育,作为回报,我们期待我们的学生们努力学习。A. 平均起来,一般说来;B. 最多,充其量;C. 作为回报;D. 毕竟,终究。根据句意故选C。

7.D【解析】根据上文raise $50,000可知,此处表示"为了支持三十年前为了结束饥饿而创办的一项活动"。A. 为了寻找;B. 需要;C. 代替;D. 为了支持。故选D。&网

8.as 考查介词。句意:这一趋势最初始于医学界作为一种对抗心脏病的方法。as表示"作为,以……身份",故填as。

9.第一处:suddenly改为sudden 考查形容词。句意:我来了个紧急刹车。suddenly是副词,表示"意外地,忽然地"。sudden为形容词,表示"突然的;迅速的",修饰名词stop用形容词,故将suddenly改为sudden。a sudden stop表示"急刹车"。

第二处:on改为of 考查介词。分析语境可知此处表示"在路中间急刹车",on the road表示"在路上",the middle of the road表示"路的中央",强调的是"the middle",故将on改为of。

10.第一处:将for去掉:考查动词,bought是及物动词,后无需跟介词,故将for去掉。

第二处:beside改为besides:考查连接词,beside是介词,"在……旁边",而这里需要一个连接词,故

 

11.B 【解析】句意:这本字典过时了:自从它被出版,很多单词被增加到这种语言中。A.失去控制;B.过时的;C.看不见的;D.够不着的。故选B。

12.B 【析】句意:研究表明我们成长的文化影响我们看周围世界的基本过程。The cultures后面是定语从句,省略了that,定语从句中cultures作宾语,那么还缺少一个介词,和cultures搭配用介词in,故选B。

13.on 【解析】考查固定搭配。句意:很多人早晨对任务的注意力要比晚些时候的注意力更集中。形容词短语be focused on意为"集中于……"。

14.B [解析]句意:这个年轻人是诚实的,有合作精神的,当你需要他的帮助的时候,他总是在那里。简言之,他是可靠的。A.否则; B.简言之; C.顺便说一下; D.首先。故选B.
15D [解析]句意:去年是有纪录以来最热的一年,全球平均气温上升0.68度。with的宾语globaltemperature,上王语不个足above the average。

高考英语

高考英语考点——冠词

2019-11-28 11:15:00

高考英语

高考英语考点——形容词和副词

2019-12-2 10:31:41

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