高考英语考点——冠词

代词篇

【命题解读】

冠词是历年高考的必考点,常出现在语篇型语法填空和短文改错中。但从整套试题来看,在短文改错、书面表达、阅读理解等题型中对冠词的隐性考查可谓无处不在。在日常交际中,几乎每说一句话、每写一篇日记、每读一篇文章都会涉及冠词的运用。故不论高考的考查形式如何变化,冠词仍应是高考复习的重点。

【命题预测】

预计2019年的高考仍然会以考查冠词在具体语境中的正确使用为主,以语篇型语法填空和短文改错的形式出现,它可能把冠词的各种用法结合名词一起进行考查。

【复习建议】  1. 掌握冠词的基本用法;

  1. 掌握冠词的习惯用法;
  2. 掌握冠词的活用;
  3. 多做练习,提高熟悉语境的能力。

 

◆代词的考查要点

代词分为九类:人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、相互代词、指示代词、疑问代词、连接代词、关系代词、不定代词。大多数代词具有名词和形容词的作用。

一、 人称代词

1.人称代词作主语用主格,作宾语、表语用宾格,但应注意以下四种情况:

①作主语的人称代词如果孤立地使用于无谓语动词的句子中,或在这种句子中与动词不定式连用,常用宾格。

—Susan,go and join your sister cleaning the yard.

—Why me?John is sitting there doing nothing.

②句子中代词作宾语或宾语补足语时,与所替代的名词在人称、数、格以及意义上一般要保持前后一致。

The thief was thought to be he.(the thief是主格,故用he替代)

They took me to be her.他们误以为我是她。(me是宾格,故用her替代)

③作表语的人称代词一般用宾格,但在强调句型中,被强调部分代词的格不变。

I met her in the hospital.→It was her who I met in the hospital.

④在比较级的句子中than、as后用主格、宾格都可以。如:He is taller than me(I).但在下列句中有区别:

I like Jack as much as her.=I like both Jack and her.

I like Jack as much as she.=I like Jack and she likes him,too.

2.两个以上的人称代词并列,其次序排列原则:

在并列主语中,"I"总是放在最后,排列顺序为:二 三 一(人称)。宾格me也一样。

You,she and I will be in charge of the case.

Mr. Zhang asked Li Hua and me to help him.

 

1.(2018·新课标卷II·短文改错)As   kid, I loved to watch cartoons, but no matter how many times I asked to  them, my parents would not  let me. They would say to us that playing card games would help my brain.

【答案】us改为me

【解析】句意:他们会对我说玩纸牌有助于大脑。偷换人称代词,是对我说,前面提到的1,而不是we.
故把us改为me。

2.(2018·新课标卷III·语法填空)When the gorillas and I frightened each other, I was just glad to find ____68____(they) alive.

【答案】them

【解析】此处做find 的宾语,所以用宾格them。

 

二、 物主代词

1.注意名词性和形容词性物主代词各自的语法功能。

2.one’s own…=…of one’s own句式的转换。

3.某些固定结构中常用定冠词代替物主代词。

take sb.by the arm,be wounded in the leg

 

三、 反身代词

1.反身代词的语法功能:宾语、表语、主语或宾语的同位语。

2.反身代词和某些动词连用,构成固定短语。

devote oneself to致力于

dress oneself自己穿衣

enjoy oneself过得快活

feel oneself觉得正常

3.反身代词还可用于某些成语中。

for oneself为自己;独立地

of oneself自然地;自动地

by oneself独自地

in oneself本身

 

(2018·新课标卷III·短文改错)Some of us were confident and eager  take part in the class activity, others were nervous and anxious. I had done homework but I was shy.

【答案】myself改为my/the

【解析】句意:我已经完成了自己的作业。表示“我的”用my不用myself,或改为定冠词the也可以。

 

四、 相互代词(each other,one another)

相互代词无人称、数和格的区别,在句中作宾语。其所有格分别为each other’s,one another’s,作定语。

一般来说,each other指两者之间,one another指三者或三者以上之间,但现在区分已不明显。

 

五、指示代词(this,that,these,those,such,same)

指示代词具有形容词和代词两种词性,在句子中可以作定语、主语、宾语或表语等。

1.指示代词this(these)和that(those)的区别。

①this(these)一般指时间或空间上较近的人或物;that(those)常指时间或空间上较远的人或物。

This is my desk and that is yours.

In those days they could not go to school.

②this常指后面要讲到的事物,有启下的作用;that则指前面讲到过的事物,有承上的作用。

I want to tell you this:the English party will be held on Saturday afternoon.

He hurt his leg yesterday. That’s why he didn’t come.

③为了避免重复,常用that或those代替前面已提过的名词。

The weather of Beijing is colder than that of Nanjing.

The ears of a rabbit are longer than those of a fox.

④this在电话用语中用于作自我介绍,that用于询问对方;this和that可以当副词用,意思相当于副词so。

Can hard work change a person that much?

 

考向一:对替代词的考查

1.that(those), one(ones)和it(的替代用法)

—Did you get a ticket?

——你搞到票了吗?

—Yes, I managed to get one.

——是的,我设法搞到了一张。

The weather of Beijing is colder than that of Guangzhou.北京的天气比广州冷。

Studying Wendy’s menu,I found that many of the items are similar to those of McDonald’s.研究了温迪的菜单,我发现其中很多东西和麦当劳的相似。

The weather here is too cold. I don’t like it.

这儿的天气太冷了,我不喜欢这儿的天气。

说明:①one和that都可以用来替代上文中所出现的名词,有时可以互换;但是在下列情况下不可以互换:

②the ones用来替代上文提到的特指的复数名词,有时可以用those代替,尤其在有后置定语的情况下。

The books on the desk are better than those/the ones under the desk.桌上的那些书比桌下的好。

Only those(the ones)who had booked in advance were allowed in.只有那些预先订票的人可以进去。

但是,the ones中的ones根据情况可用形容词修饰,而those不可以。

—Which do you want?你想要哪个?

—I’ll have the red ones.我要红色的。

Don’t buy the expensive apples; get the cheaper ones.别买那价钱贵的苹果,买那便宜的。

1.(2016·浙江卷)In many ways , the education system in the US is not very different from _______ in the UK.

A.that              B. this           C. one               D. it

【答案】A

【解析】句意:在许多方面,美国的教育体系和英国的教育体系大不相同。that指代上文的the education system。it指代的是同一种事或物。one是泛指,指代同类中的一个。故选A。

2.Usually there might be a lot of accidents in the heavy fog. I happened to witness _______ this morning.

A.it         B. those C. one             D. that

【答案与解析】C

【解析】句意:通常在大雾天会有很多事故。今天早上我碰巧目击了一起事故。根据语境可知,此处指上句提到的”一起交通事故”,故用one代替。即C项正确。

3.I like this house with a beautiful garden in front, but I don’t have enough money to buy _______.

A.one        B. it             C. this      D. that

【答案】B

【解析】it=the house with a beautiful garden in front。句意:我很喜欢屋前有一个美丽花园的这栋房子,但是我没有足够的钱去把它买下来。

4.Studying Wendy’s menu, I found that many of the items are similar to _______ of McDonald’s .

A.those         B. ones           C. any              D. all

【答案】A

【解析】those=the ones, 代指前面的many of the items,表示复数、特指,被of McDonald’s修饰,符合语境。ones表示复数、泛指;any任何一个;all全部,均不符合语境,故排除。句意:研究一下Wendy餐馆的菜单,我发现其中许多与麦当劳的菜单项目非常相似。

 

考向二: 对both,all,either,any,neither,none 的考查

1.The research group produced two reports based on the survey, but _______ contained any useful suggestions.

A.all B. none C. either D. neither

【答案】D

【解析】all全部;none没有一个;either两个中任何一个;两者都不。根据该句意思:那个研究小组在调査的基础上得出了两个报告,但是两个报告里面都没有任何有用的建议。故选D。

2.—When shall I call , in the morning or afternoon?

—_______. I’ll be in all day .

A.Any   B. None   C. Neither   D. Either

【答案】D

【解析】句意:”我什么时候打电话过来?早晨还是下午? ” “都可以,我一直都在。”根据句意可知是在”早晨和下午这两种情况中做出选择”‘。AB通常都表示三者或者三者以上的情况,neither表示两者都不。故D正确。

3.Although Rosemary had suffered from a serious illness for years, she lost _______ of her enthusiasm for life.

A.no one B. neither C .none D. all

【答案】C

【解析】no one没有人;neither表示否定两者,题干没有两者提示,因此不选;表示三者以上的否定意用none。句意:罗斯玛丽这么多年遭受了严重疾病所带来的痛苦,但是她一点也没有丧失对生活的热情。

4.My brother would like to buy a good watch but _______ was available from that shop.

A.nothing B. none C. no one D. neither

【答案】B

【解析】这里要注意是在那家店里没有买到,就是说店里的任何一块表都不可用的,有一个特定的范围,用none。nothing指物,什么都不是;none既可指人也可指物,强调"没有一个";no one只能指人;neither表两者都不,故此题选B。句意:我哥哥想买一块好表,但是在那家店里没有合适的。

考向三: 对 another,the other,other,others,the others 的考查

His parents both work in a hospital. One is a doctor and the other is a nurse.

他父母都在一家医院工作。一个是医生,一个是护士。

When Americans moved from one place to another,they took their dialects with them.

当美国人从一个地方迁移到另一个地方时,他们带着自己的方言。

You are a team star!Working with others is really your cup of tea.

你是队里的明星!与别人一起工作的确是你的所爱。

I have three daughters. One is a nurse,another is a teacher and still another is a worker.

我有三个女儿。一个是护士,另一个是教师,还有一个是工人。

We need another few chairs.我们还需要几把椅子。

 

1.(2018·新课标卷I·短文改错) The first time I went there, they were living in a small house with dogs, ducks, and  another animals.

【答案】another改为other

【解析】他们住在一个小房子里,院子里有狗、鸭子和其他牲畜。根据句意可知,将another改成other。

2.—Would you get me a bar of chocolate from the kitchen, dear?

—_______ one?

A.Other               B. Every             C. Another           D. More

【答案】C

【解析 】another 与数词连用时,数词放在 another的后面,如another three chairs; other和more与数词连用时,数词放在它们的前面,如one more apple two other boys; every指每一个,含义与all接近。因此选C。句意:”亲爱的,可不可以到厨房里给我拿二块巧克力来?””还要吃一块?”

3.To stay awake, he finished a cup of coffee and ordered _______.

A.the other B. other C. the others    D. another

【答案】D

【解析】两者中另一个用"the other"。不定数目(两个以上)中的另一个用"another"句意:为了保持清醒,他喝完了一杯咖啡,又要了一杯。

4.You are the team star! Working with _______ is really your cup of tea.

A.both            B. either             C. others           D. the other

【答案】C

【解析】句意:你是球队明星!与他人合作必定是你的拿手好戏。习语"one’s cup of tea"意为"the type of thing or person that you like"。

5.Neither side is prepared to talk to _______ unless we can smooth thing over between them.

A.others           B. the other         C. another       D. one other

【答案】B

【解析】neither含有”两者都不”之意,一方对应另一方,故用the other 指”两者中的另-个”。句意:
除非我们能够清除他们之间的障碍,否则双方没有一方愿意同另一方谈话。

 

考向四:对 it的考查

it的特殊用法

(1)作形式主语或形式宾语代指不定式、动词-ing形式、名词性从句。

I find it difficult to do the job well.

我发现做好这件工作不容易。

(2)表示"喜欢、恨"等心理方面的动词后面接it,构成固定结构,这类动词有enjoy,prefer,love,like,hate,dislike,appreciate等。

We really appreciate it when she offered to help.

她来帮忙了,我们十分感激。

(3)it在固定结构中的用法:

make it成功;

take it that…假设,以为……;

when it comes to…当谈到……时;

rely on/depend on/count on it that…相信……

You may rely on it that he’ll come to meet you.

你放心,他会来接你的。

 

1.(2018年·浙江卷·语法填空)Many westerners   57 who/that   come to China cook much less than in their own countries once they realize how cheap   58   can be to eat out.

【答案】it

【解析】考查it用法。句子为感叹句,正常语序应该是it can be cheap to eat out.其中不定式to eat out是真正主语,用it 是形式主语。故填it。

2.I’m afraid you can’t _______ to the village in an hour; you must allow for the icy road.

A.get it          B. take it C. leave it        D. make it

【答案】D

【解析】句意恐怕你不能在一小时后到达那个村庄;你必须考虑到路面结冰。getit弄明白; take it认为;leave it把它遗留在某地; make it及时抵达,成功。

3.—Alice, turn off the light and lock the door before you leave.

—_______.

A.Got it                 B. Made it C. Heard it       D. Taken it

【答案】A

【解析】句意:"爱丽丝,离开之前把灯关掉,把门锁好。" "知道了。"got it知道,明白;made it约定时间,做成某事。故选A。

4.—Mom. I came first in the National Basic Skill Competition.

—Well done! _______.

A.Keep it up      B. Take it easy     C. Catch it       D. Hold it.

【答案】A

【解析】keep it up"继续努力;再接再厉",符合题意。take it easy别着急;放松;catch it受罚;受责罚;hold it稍等;别动。句意:"妈妈,我在国家基本技能大赛上得了第一名。""做得太棒了!要再接再厉"

 

题组一基础过关

用适当的代词填空

1.The cost of renting a house in central Xi’an is higher than ________ in any other area of the city.

2.—May I ask for leave tomorrow?

—No,you can’t.________ applying for the scholarship must be present.

3.I dislike ________ when I am left alone to start a conversation with a stranger.

4.If you’re buying today’s paper from the stand,could you get ________ for me?

5."Speed up. 70 km/h isn’t fast enough. You are holding up the traffic," another voice ordered from the seat next to ________ (I).

6.She asked ________ (I) name and said she didn’t remember me.

7.Years have passed. Now,every time I sit down to write ________ new,I think of Mr Gough.

8.Both teams were in hard training;________ was willing to lose the game.

9.—How many students are there in the classroom now?

—________. I have locked it.

10.Saying is one thing and doing is ________.

题组二能力提升

I.单项选择

1.—What do you think about that new librarian?

—She is _______ of a good clerk, for she even doesn’t know how to classify the books.

A.somebody      B. nothing       C. something        D. nobody

2.College students should learn to compromise. But some of them only expect people to change for them, not _______ way around.

A.another B. the other C. other D. any other

3.Almost 90% of the most popular video games contain violence, and much of ______ is extremely violent.

A.which B. it C. them D. those

4.According to the Gini Index, the degree of wealth concentration in China has risen by a third in the past 35 years and now is larger than _______ of the US.

A.this B. one C. that D. such

5.—I’ve sold my first painting!

—This is really _______! Someone actually thinks your painting fantastic.

A.everything B. anything C. nothing D. something

6.It’s one thing to send a short message but _______ to hove the person receiving the message actually do something.

A.another   B. other   C. the other   D. others

7.If I had ever feared death before, it was _______ compared to how I felt as the roller coaster moved faster and faster.

A.anything B. something         C. everything        D. nothing

8.Actually, Einstein’s theory of relativity and his other scientific works arenot _______ hard to understand with a little study.

A.such                               B. that C. only                             D. thus

9.Tina has got a new dictionary and I’m eager to have ______ as well.

A.that B. it C. this D. one

10.Hangzhou is really a beautiful city, so we have decided to stay for ______ two days.

A.other B. another C. the other D. others

II.语篇填空

An old man and his son were taking a donkey to the market. The man rode the donkey and the son walked behind __1__. A man saw them and asked the son why __2__wasn’t riding the donkey. Then the father let __3__ride it.__4__ man saw them and told __5__ that they should __6__ride the donkey.So__7__ both got on it. A woman who saw them said,"Tell __8__,why are you both riding that poor animal? __9__ looks so weak and tired. You are so cruel!"Then,the father and son got off the donkey and started carrying __10__ across a bridge. When they were halfway across the bridge,the donkey struggled loose and fell into the river.

题组三体验真题

1.(2016·浙江)In many ways , the education system in the US is not very different from __________in the UK.

A.that              B. this           C. one               D. it

2.(2015·重庆)The meeting will be held in September, but_________ knows the date for sure.

A.everybody B. nobody   C. anybody   D. somebody

3.(2015·浙江)How would you like         if you were watching your favorite TV program and someone came into the room and just shut it off without asking you?

A.them B. one C. those D. it

4.(2015·天津)The quality of education in this small school is better than ______ in some larger schools.

A.that B. one C. it D. this

5.(2015·陕西)To warm himself, the sailor sat in front of the fire rubbing one bare foot against           .

A.another    B. the other    C. other   D. either

6.(2015·福建)The research group produced two reports based on the survey, but_________ contained any useful suggestions.

A.all B. none C. either D. neither

7.(2014·全国大纲卷)—Who’s that at the door?

—__________ is the milkman.

A.He    B. It C. This D. That

8.(2014·全国大纲卷)I think Mrs. Stark could be _______ between 50 and 60 years of age.

A.anywhere B. anybody C. anyhow D. anything

9.(2014·重庆)A smile costs _______, but gives much.

A.anything      B. something      C. nothing      D. everything

10.(2014·山东)Susan made______ clear to me that she wished to make a new life for herself.

A.that      B. this      C. it       D. her

 

题组一基础过关

用适当的代词填空

1.that  2.Anyone  3.it  4.one  5.mine/me

6.my  7.something  8.neither  9.None  10.another

题组二能力提升

I.单项选择

1.B【解析】 nothing of不够…..的素质或条件。句意: “你觉得那个新图书管理员怎么样?””她不是一
个好办事员,因为她甚至不知道如何将图书进行分类。”故选B。

2.B 【解祈】句意:大学生应该学会妥协。但是大学生中有有些人只是希望人们为他们而改变,而不是相反。not the other way around而不是相反的。根据句意故选B。&网

3.B【解析】考查代词。句意:90%最流行的视频游戏都包含暴力,其中很多是极其暴力的。it指代不可数名词violence。

4.C 【解析】 that/those在句中用来代替前面出现的同类比较对象,that指代单数可数名词或不可数名词,that指代上文提到的"the degree of wealth concentration"。句意:据基尼指数显示,过去35年来,中国的财富集中度增长了三分之一,如今比美国还高。

5.D【解祈】句意:"我卖掉了我的第一幅画!""太棒了!一定有人认为你的画是极好的。"This/It is really something为习惯用法,意为"太棒了,好极了"。该句中something指"重要的事物(人),有一定意义的事物",符合句意。故答案选D。

 

6.A  【解析】句意:发短信是一回事,而让收到短信的人做什么事又是另外一回事。(one…)another(表示另外一个,故选A项。

7.D 【解析】句意:要说我以前怕死过,可要与坐着过山车转得越来越快时的感觉相比,那简直算不上什么了。 即:没有什么可以与坐着过山车转得越来越快时的感觉相比。故选nothing。

8.B【解析】句意:实际上,只用稍作研究,爱因斯坦的相对论和他的其他的科学著作并不是那么难理解的。
that hard=so hard那么难。
9. D【解析】考查代词。句意: Tina有一本新的字典,我也渴望有一本(新字典)。指代上文的a new dictionary
用one代替; that 指上文的可数名词单数或不可数名词,后面有后置定语; it 特指上文的可数名词单数或不可数名词,this 表示”这个” ; one 泛指可数名词单数。故选D。

10.B【解析】考查形容词和代词。another是形容词,通常接单数名词,"又一个,再一个,另一的"的意思。another two days意思是"还要两天"。other可以作为形容词或代词,表示"其他的,另外的"。当other作为形容词时,后面通常接复数名词,这是它与another的主要区别。the other指的是两个人或两件东西中的"另一个"。other作为代词时,复数是others,表示"别的(人或物)","其余的(人或物)"。

II.语篇填空

1.it/them  2.he  3.him  4.Another  5.them

6.both  7.they   8.me  9.It  10.it

题组三体验真题

1.A 【解析】句意:在很多方面,美国的教育体系和英国的教育体系很不相同。指代上文的名词education system,用that,而且后面有介词短语作后置定语。this表示"近指",one是泛指可数名词单数,it是特指上文提到的名词。故选A。

2.B【解析】句意:会议将在九月举行,但没有人知道确切的日期。根据but表达转折可知没有人知道,故选B项。

【名师点睛】这道题考查不定代词,题目难度不大,不定代词的运用要根据题目中所给的语境,及关键词来进行确定。Somebody一般用于肯定的陈述句中,anybody多用于否定句,疑问句或条件句中,everybody用于肯定句; nobody表示没人或没有人;根据语境中的but可知表示转折,故暗示没有人知道确切的日期。

3.D 【解析】句意:当你正在看一个你喜欢的节目时,突然有个人进来,一声不吭地关掉电视,你会怎么想?It作形式宾语,指代if后面的句子。该句涉及到了一个疑问句,一个条件状语从句(if)和两个并列句(and)。这当时应该先把它转化为陈述句you would like______.分析句子结构知道like之后缺少一个宾语,需要一个宾格代词充当,所以答案为D。

【名师点睛】it 为形式宾语,其后的不定式为真正的宾语。一般说来,当不定式、动名词、从句等用作宾语且其后跟有宾语补足语时,就应在宾语补足语前使用形式宾语,而将真正的宾语移至句末。it 用作形式宾语的基本句型是:动词+形式宾语+宾语补足语+真正的宾语。另外,某些表示"喜、怒、哀、乐"的动词,如like, enjoy, love, hate等,往往不能直接接宾语从句,需要用it作形式宾语。

4.A【解析】句意:这所小学校的教育质量要好于一些大学校。句中代词代指不可数名词the quality of education,故用代词that。代词it和one都代指可数名词单数。故选A。

5.B 【解析]】句意:为了提醒自己,这个水手坐在火前面一只光脚摩擦另外一只脚。因为人有两只脚,一只是one,另外一只是the other,所以选B。

6.D 【解析】 all全部; none没有一个; either 两个中任何一个; neither两者都不。句意:那个研究团队
在那个调查上得出了两个报告,但是两个报告里面都没有任何有用的参考。故选D。

7.B 【解析】考查代词的用法。句意:——谁在门外?——是送牛奶的。因为不知道门外的是什么人。故用it指代不清楚的人。故选B。

8.A 【解析】考查不定代词的用法。句意:我认为Stark夫人在50到60岁之间在哪里都行。此处anywhere意为:任何地方,符合句意。

9.C 【解析】句意:微笑是无需付出任何成本的。该句中的but一词构成前后语义矛盾,"微笑不花钱,但却给予他人很多。nothing与much形成语义对比。故本题选择C项。cost nothing意为"无需付出"。

10.C 【解析】这是一个宾语从句,make的宾语是that引导的句子,在本句中用it做形式宾语代指that引导的宾语从句。句意:Susan向我表明她希望能过上新的生活。故答案选C

 

高考英语

高考英语考点——主谓一致

2019-11-27 10:53:34

高考英语

高考英语考点——介词和介词短语

2019-11-29 10:07:33

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