高考英语考点——阅读理解主旨大意题

考点解读

高考阅读理解对文章的主旨大意进行命题,旨在考查考生通过对原文快速浏览正确

获取语篇的大意,并对文章的主题、标题、段落、中心思想加以归纳理解以及辨别主要信息和次要信息的能力。要求考生在阅读短文时,能够提炼文章的中心情节,体会作者的主要意图,充分运用逻辑概括能力,透过字里行间获取文章最具代表性的观点、中心论点及作者的情感倾向。

在高考阅读理解中,针对短文主旨常见的命题形式如下:

(1) What would be the best title for the text? /What is the topic of the text?

(2) The main topic / subject of the passage is _________.

(3) The main idea/ The general idea is/ The main theme of this passage is…

(4) The last paragraph ends the passage with an emphasis on _________.

(5) What is mainly discussed in the text?

(6) What is the main idea of the passage?

(7) What’s the main point the writer is trying to make in the last paragraph?

(8) The purpose of this passage is.

(9) Which of the following statements is best supported by the text?

(10) Which of the following best summarized the passage?

(11) The passage mainly focuses on.

从上述命题形式可以看出,此类阅读测试题主要可概括为两大类,即怎样理解段落及文章整体的中心思想和怎样拟定或选择恰当的标题。下面结合高考题实例来具体分析此类题目的解题技巧。

怎样理解段落及文章整体的主旨大意

——主题句定位法

文章是由段落组成的。段落是发展一个主题的一群句子,段落围绕着中心思想展开,而段落的中心思想又是为文章整体的中心思想服务的。寻找具体段落的中心思想的方法是:通过分析篇章结构,找出每小段的主题句,通过主题句找出文章的主题。找准文章的主题句是确定文章主旨大意的关键。主题是文章要表达的中心思想,文章的主题句通常都有一个话题,它是文章的核心。“主题句定位法”是一种行之有效的方法。

但是由于文章的不同,表现的手法也各有不同,主题句出现的位置也不是一成不变的。在许多情况下,尤其在阅读说明文和议论文时,根据其篇章特点我们可以通过寻找短文的主题句来归纳出文章的主题。主题句在文章中的位置通常有三种情况:开头、中间、结尾(含在开头结尾同时出现、首尾呼应的主题句)。因此,仔细阅读这类文章或段落的首尾句是关键。做主旨大意类试题多采用浏览法(skimming),浏览时,一般不需逐句细读,只选读文章的首段、尾段,或每段的首句和尾句,重点搜索主题线索和主题信息。

文章主题常常可以通过文章的写作方法来体现,有以下五种情况:

1.中心主题句出现在文首

开门见山,提出主题,随之用细节来解释、支撑或发展主题句所表达的主题思想。这是英语中最常见的演绎法写作方式,即由一般到特殊,先提出观点,后举例论证,主题句则出现在段首的写作方法。

新闻报道通常就采用这种写法。新闻报道的首句通常称为“新闻导语”,“导语”实际上就是主题句,是对全文内容的高度概括。大意题、标题一般可在第一句话找到答题依据。

(2018·新课标卷I)Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers,small, tightly knit (联系)groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other.Some language experts believe that 10,000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12,000 languages between them.

Soon afterwards, many of those people started settling down to become farmers, and their languages too became more settled and fewer in number. In recent centres, trade,industrialisation. the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education. Especially glbalisation and better communications in the past few decades,all have caused many Languages to disappear,and dominant languages such as English.Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.

At present, the world has about 6 800 languages. The distribution of these languages is hugely uneven. The general rule is that mild zones have relatively few languages. Often spoken by many people while hot. wet zones have lots, often spoken by small numbers.Europe has only around 200 Languages: the Americas about 1,000. Africa 2 400; and Asia and the Pacific perhaps 3,200, of which Papua New Guinea alone accounts for well over 800. The median number (中位数)of speakers is a mere 6.000, which means that half the worlds languages are spoken by fewer people than that.

Already well over 400 of the total of, 6,800 languages are close to extinction(消亡), with only a few elderly speakers left. Pick, at random, Busuu in Cameroon (eight remaining speakers),Chiapaneco in Mexico(150). Lipan Apache in the United States(two or three)or Wadjigu in Australia (one, with a question-mark): none of these seems to have much chance of survival.

31.What is the min idea of the text?

A.New languages will be created.

B.Peoples lifestyles are reflected in languages

C.Human development results in fewer languages

D.Geography determines language evolution.

【文章大意】本文是一篇议论文。文章讲述了随着社会的发展人类语言越来越少及其原因。

【答案】C

2.主题句出现在文尾

在细节后,归纳要点、印象、结论、建议或结果,以概括主题。这是英语中最常见的归纳法写作方式,即细节表述的句子在前,概括性的句子居后,主题句则常位于末段。

The famous American gorilla(大猩猩) expert Diane Fossey had a completely new way to study gorillas — she pretended to be one of them. She copied their actions and way of life — eating plants and getting down on her hands and knees to walk the way a gorilla does. It was a new relationship.

Diane Fossey was murdered in Rwanda in 1985 and her story was made into the popular film Gorillas in the Mist. It was a long way from King Kong, which is about a gorilla as a monster (a frightening animal), and helped to show a new idea: the real monster is man, while the gorilla is to be admired.

Today there are thought to be around 48,000 lowland gorillas and maybe 400—450 mountain gorillas in the wild. From the Congo in West Africa, to Rwanda and Uganda further east, they are endangered by hunting and by the cutting down of their forest homes.

Some time ago, I found in my letterbox a little magazine from the World Wide Fund for Nature. It had two photos side by side. One was of a young gorilla. “This is a species of mammal(哺乳类动物),” said the words below it. “It is being destroyed by man. We must save it for our own good.” The other photo showed a human baby. The words also read, “This is a species of mammal,” but then went on: “It is the most destructive(破坏性的) on earth. We must retrain it for its own good.”

56.The text mainly talks about _____.

A.Diane Fossey                B. the gorillas in Rwanda

C.the protection of the gorillas    D. the film Gorillas in the Mist

3.首尾呼应的写作方法

为突出主题,作者先提出主题,结尾时再次点出主题,这种首尾呼应的写作方式也较为多见。通常,前后表述主题的句子不是简单的重复,后面的往往有进一步的引申或发展的意味。

Lacrosse (曲棍球) is a popular sport in Canada. The Indians in Canada invented it. They used it to train for war. They invented this game before Columbus arrived in the New World.

People play lacrosse outdoors. The lacrosse field is seven meters long. At each end of the field there is a goal. The goal is a net. There are ten players on each team. Each player has a stick called “ cross”. The player hit a ball into the net as many times as possible. Lacrosse is a very fast game because the players can catch and pass the ball at a high speed with their sticks. Players often get great fun it playing lacrosse.

There are many lacrosse clubs and lacrosse teams all over Canada. Every night Canadians can watch the lacrosse games on TV or listen to the lacrosse games over the radio.

At one time lacrosse was the national summer sport in Canada. Today it is still popular with Canadians.

1.The passage is mainly about ___________.

A.How to Play Lacrosse

B.Lacrosse in Canada

C.The History of Lacrosse

D.Lacrosse—A Popular Game in Canada

4. 中心主题隐含在全文之中,没有明确的主题句

阅读这样的文章,就要求考生根据文章的细节来分析,概括出段落的主题,从而推导出文章的主旨。分析的方法是,先弄清该段落主要讲了哪几个方面的内容,这些内容在逻辑上有什么联系,然后加以归纳形成主题。该类型的试题则迎刃而解。

Handshaking, though a European practice is often seen in big cities of China. Nobody knows exactly when the practice started in Europe. It is said that long long ago in Europe when people met, they showed their unarmed (无武器的) hands to each other as a sign of goodwill. As time went on and trade in cities grew rapidly, people in cities began to clap each other’s hands to make a deal or to reach an agreement. This practice was later changed into shaking hands among friends on meeting or leaving each other. “Let’s shake (hands) on it” sometimes means agreement reached.

Do the Europeans shake hands wherever they go and with whomever they meet? No. Sometimes the Chinese abroad reach out their hands too often to be polite. It is really very impolite to give your hand when the other party, especially when it is a woman, shows little interest in shaking hands with you and when the meeting does not mean anything to him or-her. Even if, for politeness, he holds out his unwilling hand in answer to your uninvited hand, just touch it slightly. There is generally a misunderstanding (误解) among the Chinese that westerners are usually open and straightforward, while the Chinese are rather reserved (保守的) in manner. But in fact some people in western countries more reserved than some Chinese today. So it is a good idea to shake hands with a westerner only when he shows interest in further relations with you.

65.The first paragraph mainly tells us ______.

A.where handshaking was first practised

B.how handshaking came about

C.about the relationship between handshaking and trade

D.about the practice of handshaking both in Europe and in China

【答案】B

【解析】主旨大意题。在文章第一段说明了握手的来历。实际上也就是谈论握手是怎样产生的。

67.The main purpose of the text is ______.

A.to tell us some differences between the East and the West

B.to offer us some important facts about handshaking

C.to introduce us to some different customs in the West

D.to give us some advice before we travel abroad

【答案】B

5.主题句出现在文章的中间

通常前面只提出问题,文中的主题由随之陈述的细节或合乎逻辑的引申在文中导出,而后又作进一步的解释、支撑或发展。

The Sahara Festival is a celebration of the very recent past. The three-day event is not fixed to the same dates each year, but generally takes place in November or December. It is well attended by tourists, but even better attended by locals.

During the opening ceremonies, after the official greetings from the government leaders, people who attend the festival begin to march smartly before the viewing stands, and white camels transport their riders across the sands. Horsemen from different nations display their beautiful clothes and their fine horsemanship. One following another, groups of musicians and dancers from all over the Sahara take their turn to show off their wonderful traditional culture. Groups of men in blue and yellow play horns and beat drums as they dance in different designs. On their knees in the sand, a group of women in long dark dresses dance with their hair: their long, dark, shiny hair is thrown back and forth in the wind to the rhythm of their dance.

67.This passage mainly tells readers_______.

A.what happens on the opening day of the Sahara Festival

B.how people celebrate during the three-day Sahara Festival

C.what takes place at the closing ceremonies of the Sahara Festival

D.how animals race on the first and the last days of the Sahara Festival

【答案】A

怎样给阅读文章整体加注标题

——高度概括法

对文章主旨大意的考察,不仅可以直接以理解段落及文章的主旨大意的形式出现,而且也可以用选择或拟定文章标题的形式出现。因此,选择文章标题,首先可以按照主旨大意的确定方式,先弄清文章的主旨大意,再定标题。

标题位于文章之首,用来高度概括文章内容,点明文章主题。它是段落中心思想最精练的表达形式。标题可帮助读者迅速推测出整篇文章的主要内容,抓住文章的中心,把握作者的观点和意图。那么如何选择文章的标题呢?

首先,要考虑标题对文章的概括性或覆盖面如何。一般要求能覆盖全文内容,体

现文章主旨。要避免下列三种情况:①概括不够(多表现为部分代整体,从而导致范围太小);②过度概括(多表现为脱离本文章内容的发挥);③以事实、细节替代抽象具体的大意。学&

其次,要考虑标题的针对性,即标题范围要恰当,针对性强。要在阅读原文的基础上,

仔细考虑所选标题与文章主题是否有密切的关系。既不能太大,也不能太小,太大则中心就不突出,太小也发挥不了应起的作用;精确度高,不能随意改变语言的表意程度及色彩。它可以是单词、短语,也可以是句子。

再次要注意标题的醒目性,标题的选择要简洁、突出、新颖,标题是文章的点睛之笔,是文章的灵魂和门面。标题的好坏往往影响了文章的可读性,读者常常从标题上决定文章的阅读取舍。故标题一般比较醒目,甚至比较离奇,以此来吸引读者对文章的兴趣。

最后要注意,要恰当地选好标题,还需要了解标题的基本拟定方法。一般说来,拟定标题是以话题为核心,与控制性概念的词按一定的语法浓缩为概括主题句或中心思想的词组。比如某一文章的中心句为:CHINA issued the first set of stamps depicting the top 128 Chinese family names on Thursday Nov. 18th 2004 in Beijing.

话题:Stamps

控制性概念:CHINA issued the first set of stamps depicting the top 128 Chinese family names

标题:China issued 1st set of stamps on family names

(中原名校豫南九校2016—2017学年高三第三次联考) August 8, was Earth Overshoot Day. Calculated annually by the environmental advocacy(支持,拥护) group, Global Footprint Network (GFN), it is the day when human has consumed all the natural resources — produce, meat, fish, water, and wood — that our planet can regenerate(再生) in a single year. This means that for the rest of 2016, we will be using natural resources that are impossible to replace.

For those that are a little confused, it is similar to spending your entire year’s allowance by August and then borrowing money from friends, knowing fully well that you cannot repay the loan. GFN says that the same thing happens in the case of the Earth.

The date of Earth Overshoot Day varies each year. In an ideal, fully sustainable world, we should only spend what we have. This means that Earth Overshoot Day would fall on December 31, or perhaps even spill into the following year, indicating that we are saving some resources for a rainy day. That did happen in 1961, when we only consumed three-quarters of what the planet produced.

Unfortunately, the day has been going up rapidly since 2014 when it fell on August 19. In 2015, it was August 13, and this year, the earliest so far — August 8! The only way to sustain this demand would be to have 1.6 earths, which as we all know, is not possible.

Fortunately, experts say that the situation is not as grim as it sounds. Many countries are already taking steps to reduce carbon emissions, which accounts for 60% of our ecological footprint, by switching to solar or wind-generated power.

Individuals can also help by eating less meat, walking, biking, or taking public transportation, as well as adopting the three R’s: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. If we all work together, we can help push back Earth Overshoot Day to December 31, or even beyond!

27.What is the best title for the passage?

A.A Warning: Earth Overshoot Day

B.A Celebration: Earth Overshoot Da

C.A Reminder: Reduce, Reuse, andReycle

D.An Advertisement: Global Footprint Network

【答案】 A

【解析】今年的Earth Overshoot Day是八月八号,即我们今年在八月八号就已经消耗掉我们今年全年的可再生资源。本文通过介绍Earth Overshoot Day告诉人们要减少资源浪费,所以最佳标题应是A项。

题组一(2018年高考真题)

Passage1(2018·新课标卷I,B)

Good Morning Britain’s Susanna Reid is used to grilling guests on the sofa every morning, but she is cooking up a storm in her latest role — showing families how to prepare delicious and nutritious meals on a tight budget.

In Save Money: Good Food, she visits a different home each week and with the help of chef Matt Tebbutt offers top tips on how to reduce food waste, while preparing recipes for under £5 per family a day. And the Good Morning Britain presenter says she’s been able to put a lot of what she’s leant into practice in her own home, preparing meals for sons, Sam,14, Finn,13, and Jack, 11.

“We love Mexican churros, so I buy them on my phone from my local Mexican takeaway restaurant,” she explains. “I pay £5 for a portion(一份), but Matt makes them for 26p a portion, because they are flour, water, sugar and oil. Everybody can buy takeaway food, but sometimes we’re not aware how cheaply we can make this food ourselves. ”

The eight-part series(系列节目), Save Money: Good Food, follows in the footsteps of ITV’s Save Money: Good Health, which gave viewers advice on how to get value from the vast range of health products on the market.

With food our biggest weekly household expense, Susanna and Matt spend time with a different family each week. In tonight’s Easter special they come to the aid of a family in need of some delicious inspiration on a budget. The team transforms the family’s long weekend of celebration with less expensive but still tasty recipes.

24.What do we know about Susanna Reid?

A.She enjoys embarrassing her guests. B.She has started a new programme.

C.She dislikes working early inthe morning.  D. She has had a tight budget for her family.

25.How does Matt Tebbutt help Susanna?

A.He buys cooking materials for her. B.He prepares food for her kids.

C.He assists her in cooking matters. D.He invites guest families for her.

26.What does the author intend to do in paragraph 4?

A.Summarize the previous paragraphs. B.Provide some advice for the readers.

C.Add some background information. D.Introduce a new topic for discussion.27.What can be a suitable title for the text?

A.Keeping Fit by Eating Smart B.Balancing Our Daily Diet

B.Making yourself a PerfectChef D. Cooking Well for Less

Passage2(2018·新课标卷II,D)

We’ve all been there: in a lift, in line at the bank or on an airplane, surrounded by people who are, like us, deeply focused on their smartphones or, worse, struggling with the uncomfortable silence.

What’s the problem? It’s possible that we all have compromised conversational intelligence. It’s more likely that none of us start a conversation because it’s awkward and challenging, or we think it’s annoying and unnecessary. But the next time you find yourself among strangers, consider that small talk is worth the trouble. Experts say it’s an invaluable social practice that results in big benefits.

Dismissing small talk as unimportant is easy, but we can’t forget that deep relationships wouldn’t

even exist if it weren’t for casual conversation. Small talk is the grease(润滑剂) for social communication, says Bernardo Carducci, director of the Shyness Research Institute at Indiana University Southeast. "Almost every great love story and each big business deal begins with small talk," he explains. "The key to successful small talk is learning how to connect with others, not just communicate with them."

In a 2014 study, Elizabeth Dunn, associate professor of psychology at UBC, invited people on their way into a coffee shop. One group was asked to seek out an interaction(互动) with its waiter; the other, to speak only when necessary. The results showed that those who chatted with their server reported significantly higher positive feelings and a better coffee shop experience. "It’s not that talking to the waiter is better than talking to your husband," says Dunn. "But interactions with peripheral(边缘的) members of our social network matter for our well-being also."

Dunn believes that people who reach out to strangers feel a significantly greater sense of belonging, a bond with others. Carducci believes developing such a sense of belonging starts with small talk. "Small talk is the basis of good manners," he says.

32.What phenomenon is described in the first paragraph?

A.Addiction to smartphones.

B.Inappropriate behaviours in public places.

C.Absence of communication between strangers.

D.Impatience with slow service.

33.What is important for successful small talk according to Carducci?

A.Showing good manners. B. Relating to other people.

B.Focusing on a topic. D. Making business deals.

34..What does the coffee-shop study suggest about small talk?

A..It improves family relationships. B. It raises people’s confidence.

C..It matters as much as a formal talk.D. It makes people feel good.

35.What is the best title for the text?

A.Coversation Counts B. Ways of Making Small Talk

C.Benefits of Small Talk D. Uncomfortable Silence

Passage3(2018·新课标卷III,B)

Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River. Over 300 years its population grew gradually from 800 people to 8 million. But not all cities develop slowly over a long period of time. Boom towns grow from nothing almost overnight. In 1896, Dawson, Canada, was unmapped wilderness(荒野). But gold was discovered there in 1897, and two years later, it was one of the largest cities in the West, with a population of 30,000.

Dawson did not have any of the natural conveniences of cities like London or Paris. People went there for gold. They travelled over snow-covered mountains and sailed hundreds of miles up icy rivers. The path to Dawson was covered with thirty feet of wet snow that could fall without warming. An avalanche(雪崩) once closed the path, killing 63 people. For many who made it to Dawson, however, the rewards were worth the difficult trip. Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich. About 100 of these stayed rich men for the rest of their lives.

But no matter how rich they were, Dawson was never comfortable. Necessities like food and wood were very expensive. But soon, the gold that Dawson depended on had all been found. The city was crowded with disappointed people with no interest in settling down, and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left Dawson City as quickly as they had come. Today, people still come and go — to see where the Canadian gold rush happened. Tourism is now the chief industry of Dawson City — its present population is 762.

24.What attracted the early settlers to New York City?

A.Its business culture.

B.Its small population.

C.Its geographical position.

D.Its favourable climate.

25.What do we know about those who first dug for gold in Dawson?

A.Two-thirds of them stayed there.

B.One out of five people got rich.

C.Almost everyone gave up.

D.Half of them died.

26.What was the main reason for many people to leave Dawson?

A.They found the city too crowded.

B.They wanted to try their luck elsewhere.

C.They were unable to stand the winter.

D.They were short of food.

27.What is the text mainly about?

A.The rise and fall of a city.

B.The gold rush in Canada.

C.Journeys into the wilderness.

D.Tourism in Dawson.

Passage4(2018·北京卷,A)

My First Marathon(马拉松

A month before my first marathon, one of my ankles was injured and this meant not running for two weeks, leaving me only two weeks to train. Yet, I was determined to go ahead.

I remember back to my 7th year in school. In my first P.E. class, the teacher required us to run laps and then hit a softball. I didn’t do either well. He later informed me that I was "not athletic".

The idea that I was "not athletic" stuck with me for years. When I started running in my 30s, I realized running was a battle against myself, not about competition or whether or not I was athletic. It was all about the battle against my own body and mind. A test of wills!

The night before my marathon, I dreamt that I couldn’t even find the finish line. I woke up sweating and nervous, but ready to prove something to myself.

Shortly after crossing the start line, my shoe laces(鞋带) became untied. So I stopped to readjust. Not the start I wanted!

At mile 3, I passed a sign: "GO FOR IT, RUNNERS!"

By mile 17, I became out of breath and the once injured ankle hurt badly. Despite the pain, I stayed the course walking a bit and then running again.

By mile 21, I was starving!

As I approached mile 23, I could see my wife waving a sign. She is my biggest fan. She never minded the alarm clock sounding at 4 a.m. or questioned my expenses on running.

I was one of the final runners to finish. But I finished! And I got a medal. In fact, I got the same medal as the one that the guy who came in first place had.

Determined to be myself, move forward, free of shame and worldly labels(世俗标签), I can now call myself a "marathon winner".

36.A month before the marathon, the author ____________.

A.was well trained B. felt scared

B.made up his mind to run D. lost hope

37.Why did the author mention the P.E. class in his 7th year?

A.To acknowledge the support of his teacher.

B.To amuse the readers with a funny story.

C.To show he was not talented in sports.

D.To share a precious memory.

38.How was the author’s first marathon?

A.He made it. B. He quit halfway.

C.He got the first prize. D. He walked to the end.

39.What does the story mainly tell us?

A.A man owes his success to his family support.

B.A winner is one with a great effort of will.

C.Failure is the mother of success.

D.One is never too old to learn.

题组(2017年高考真题)

Passage1(2017·新课标卷I,B)

Some of the world’s most famous musicians recently gathered in Paris and New Orleans to celebrate the first annual International Jazz Day. UNESCO( United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) recently set April 30 as a day to raise awareness of jazz music, its significance, and its potential as a unifying(联合) voice across cultures.

Despite the celebrations, though, in the U.S. the jazz audience continues to shrink and grow older, and the music has failed to connect with younger generations.

It’s Jason Moran’s job to help change that. As the Kennedy Center’s artistic adviser for jazz, Moran hopes to widen the audience for jazz, make the music more accessible, and preserve its history and culture.

“Jazz seems like it’s not really a part of the American appetite,” Moran tells National Public Radio’s reporter Neal Conan. “What I’m hoping to accomplish is that my generation and younger start to reconsider and understand that jazz is not black and write anymore. It’s actually color, and it’s actually digital.”

Moran says one of the problems with jazz today is that the entertainment aspect of the music has been lost. “The music can’t be presented today the way it was in 1908 or 1958. It has to continue to move, because the way the world works is not the same,” says Moran.

Last year, Moran worked on a project that arranged Fats Waller’s music for a dance party, “just to kind of put it back in the mind that Waller is dance music as much as it is concert music,” says Moran. “For me, it’s the recontextualization. In music, where does the emotion(情感) lie? Are we, as humans, gaining any insight(感悟) on how talk about ourselves and how something as abstract as a Charlie Parker record gets us into a dialogue about our emotions and our thoughts? Sometimes we lose sight that the music has a wider context,” says Moran, “so I want to continue those dialogues. Those are the things I want to foster.”

28.Why did UNESCO set April 30 as International Jazz Day?

A.To remember the birth of jazz.

B.To protect cultural diversity.

C.To encourage people to study music.

D.To recognize the value of jazz.

29.What does the underlined word “that” in paragraph 3 refer to?

A.Jazz becoming more accessible.

B.The production of jazz growing faster.

C.Jazz being less popular with the young.

D.The jazz audience becoming larger.

30.What can we infer about Moran’s opinion on jazz?

A.It will disappear gradually.

B.It remains black and white.

C.It should keep up with the times.

D.It changes every 50 years.

31.Which of the following can be the best title for the text?

A.Exploring the Future of Jazz

B.The Rise and Fall of Jaz

C.The Story of a Jazz Musican

D.Celebrating the Jazz Da

Passage2(2017·新课标II卷,C)

Terrafugia Inc. said Monday that its new flying car has completed its first flight, bringing the company closer to its goal of selling the flying car within the next year. The vehicle —named the Transition – has two seats, four wheels and wings that fold up so it can be driven like a car. The Transition, which flew at 1,400 feet for eight minutes last month, can reach around 70 miles per hour on the road and 115 in the air. It flies using a 23-gallon tank of gas and burns 5 gallons per hour in the air. On the ground, it gets 35 miles per gallon.

Around 100 people have already put down a $10,000 deposit to get a Transition when they go on sale, and those numbers will likely rise after Terrafugia introduces the Transition to the public later this week at the New York Auto Show. But don’t  expect it to show up in too many driveways. It’s expected to cost $279,000.And it won’t  help if you’re stuck in traffic. The car needs a runway.

Inventors have been trying to make flying cars since the 1930s, according to Robert Mann, an airline industry expert. But Mann thinks Terrafugia has come closer than anyone to making the flying car a reality. The government has already permitted the company to use special materials to make it easier for the vehicle to fly. The Transition  is now going through crash tests to make sure it meets federal safety standards.

Mann said Terrafugia was helped by the Federal Aviation Administration’s decision five years ago to create a separate set of standards for light sport aircraft, which are lower than those for pilots of larger planes. Terrafugia

says an owner would need to pass a test and complete 20 hours of flying time to be able to fly the Transition, a requirement pilots would find relatively easy to meet.

28.What is the first paragraph mainly about?

A.The basic data of the Transition.

B.The advantages of flying cars.

C.The potential market for flying cars.

D.The designers of the Transition.

29.Why is the Transition unlikely to show up in too many driveways?

A.It causers traffic jams.

B.It is difficult to operate.

C.It is very expensive.

D.It burns too much fuel.

30.What is the government’s attitude to the development of the flying car?

A.Cautious                       B. Favorable.

BC.Ambiguous.                     D. Disapproving.

31What is the best title for the text?

A.Flying Car at Auto Show           B. The Transition’s First Flight

C.Pilots’ Dream Coming True          D. Flying Car Closer to Reality

Passage3(2017·天津卷)

This month, Germany’s transport minister, Alexander Dobrindt, proposed the first set of rules for autonomous vehicles(自主驾驶车辆). They would define the driver’s role in such cars and govern how such cars perform in crashes where lives might be lost.

The proposal attempts to deal with what some call the “death valley” of autonomous vehicles: the grey area between semi-autonomous and fully driverless cars that could delay the driverless future.

Dobrindt wants three things: that a car always chooses property(财产) damage over personal injury; that it never distinguishes between humans based on age or race; and that if a human removes his or her hands from the driving wheel — to check email, say — the car’s maker is responsible if there is a crash.

“The change to the road traffic law will permit fully automatic driving,” says Dobrindt. It will put fully driverless cars on an equal legal footing to human drivers, he says.

Who is responsible for the operation of such vehicles is not clear among car makers, consumers and lawyers. “The liability(法律责任) issue is the biggest one of them all,” says Natasha Merat at the University of Leeds, UK.

An assumption behind UK insurance for driverless cars, introduced earlier this year, insists that a human “be watchful and monitoring the road” at every moment.

But that is not what many people have in mind when thinking of driverless cars. “When you say ‘driverless cars’, people expect driverless cars.” Merat says. “You know — no driver.”

Because of the confusion, Merat thinks some car makers will wait until vehicles can be fully automated without operation.

Driverless cars may end up being a form of public transport rather than vehicles you own, says Ryan Calo at Stanford University, California. That is happening in the UK and Singapore, where government-provided driverless vehicles are being launched.

That would go down poorly in the US, however. “The idea that the government would take over driverless cars and treat them as a public good would get absolutely nowhere here,” says Calo.

46.What does the phrase “death valley”in Paragraph 2 refer to?

A.A place where cars often break down.

B.A case where passing a law is impossible.

C.An area where no driving is permitted.

D.A situation where drivers’role is not clear.

47.The proposal put forward by Dobrindt aims to __________.

A.stop people from breaking traffic rules

B.help promote fully automatic driving

C.protect drivers of all ages and races

D.prevent serious property damage

48.What do consumers think of the operation of driverless cars?

A.It should get the attention of insurance companies.

B.It should be the main concern of law makers.

C.It should not cause deadly traffic accidents.

D.It should involve no human responsibility.

49.Driverless vehicles in public transport see no bright future in _________.

A.Singapore B. the UK

C.the US D. Germany

50.What could be the best title for the passage?

A.Autonomous Driving: Whose Liability?

B.Fully Automatic Cars: A New Breakthrough

C.Autonomous Vehicles: Driver Removed!

D.Driverless Cars: Root of Road Accidents

题组三(2016年高考真题)

Passage1(2016·新课标全国卷I)

The meaning of silence varies among cultural groups. Silences may be thoughtful, or they may be empty when a person has nothing to say. A silence in a conversation may also show stubbornness, uneasiness,or worry. Silence may be viewed by some cultural groups as extremely uncomfortable; therefore attempts may be made to fill every gap(间隙) with conversation. Persons in other cultural groups value silence and view it as necessary for understanding a person’s needs.

Many Native Americans value silence and feel it is a basic part of communicating among people, just as some traditional Chinese and Thai persons do. Therefore, when a person from one of these cultures is speaking and

suddenly stops, what may be implied(暗示) is that the person wants the listener to consider what has been said before continuing. In these cultures, silence is a call for reflection.

Other cultures may use silence in other ways, particularly when dealing with conflicts among people or in relationships of people with different amounts of power. For example, Russian, French, and Spanish persons may use silence to show agreement between parties about the topic udner discussion. However, Mexicans may use silence when instructions are given by a person in authority rather than be rude to that person by arguing with him or her. In still another use, persons in Asian cultures may view silence as a sign of respect, particularly to an elder or a person in authority.

Nurses and other care-givers need to be aware of the possible meanings of silence when they come across the personal anxiety their patients may be experiencing. Nurses should recognize their own personal and cultural construction of silence so that a patient’s silence is not interrupted too early or allowed to go on unnecessarily. A nurse who understands the healing(治愈) value of silence can use this understanding to assist in the care of patients from their own and from other cultures.

32.What does the author say about silence in conversations?

A.It implies anger.

B .It promotes friendship.

C..It is culture-specific.

D.It is content-based.

33.Which of the following people might regard silence as a call for careful thought?

A.The Chinese.

B.The French.

C.The Mexicans.

D.The Russians.

33.What does the author advise nurses to do about silence?

A.Let it continue as the patient pleases.

B.Break it while treating patients.

C.Evaluate its harm to patients.

D.Make use of its healing effects.

34.What may be the best title for the text?

A.Sound and Silence

B.What It Means to Be Silent

C.Silence to Native Americans

D.Speech Is Silver; Silence Is Gold

Passage2(2016·新课标全国卷II)

Reading can be a social activity. Think of the people who belong to book groups. They choose books to read and then meet to discuss them. Now, the website BookCrossing.com turns the page on the traditional idea of a book group.

Members go on the site and register the books they own and would like to share. BookCrossing provides an identification number to stick inside the book. Then the person leaves it in a public place, hoping that the book will have an adventure, traveling far and wide with each new reader who finds it.

Bruce Pederson, the managing director of BookCrossing, says, “The two things that change your life are the people you meet and books you read. BookCrossing combines both.”

Members leave books on park benches and buses, in train stations and coffee shops. Whoever finds their book will go to the site and record where they found it.

People who find a book can also leave a journal entry describing what they thought of it. E-mails are then sent to the BookCrossers to keep them updated about where their books have been found. Bruce Pederson says the idea is for people not to be selfish by keeping a book to gather dust on a shelf at home.

BookCrossing is part of a trend among people who want to get back to the “real” and not the virtual(虚拟). The site now has more than one million members in more than one hundred thirty-five countries.

9.Why does the author mention book groups in the first paragraph?

A.To explain what they are.

B.To introduce BookCrossing.

C.To stress the importance of reading.

D.To encourage readers to share their ideas.

10.What does the underlined word “it” in Paragraph 2refer to?

A.The book. B.An adventure.

C.A public place. D. The identification number.

11..What will a BookCrosser do with a book after reading it?

A.Meet other readers to discuss it.

B.Keep it safe in his bookcase.

C.Pass it on to another reader.

D.Mail it back to its owner.

12.What is the best title for the text?

A.Online Reading: A Virtual Tour

B.Electronic Books: A new Trend

C.A Book Group Brings Tradition Back

D.A Website Links People through Books

Passage3(2016·四川卷)

A warm drink of milk before bed has long been the best choice for those wanting a good night’s sleep. But now a study has found it really does help people nod off—if it is milked from a cow at night.

Researchers have discovered that “night milk” contains more melatonin(褪黑激素), which has been proven to help people feel sleepy and reduce anxiety.

The study, by researchers from Seoul, South Korea, involved mice being fed with dried milk powder made from cows milked both during the day and at night.

Those given night milk, which contained 10 times the amount of melatonin, were less active and less anxious than those fed with the milk collected during daytime, according to the study published in The Journal of Medicinal Food.

Night milk quickened the start of sleep and caused the mice to sleep longer.

While the effect of cows milk harvested at different time has not been tested on humans up to now, taking melatonin drugs has been suggested to those who are struggling to fall asleep at night.

Previous studies have also indicated that milk can be excellent for helping sleep because of the calcium content, which helps people to relax.

Milk is also sugar-free and additive-free with nutritionists recommending skimmed milk as the best choice before bed as it is the least fattening. The more fat you take in before bedtime, the greater burden you will put on your body at night.

22.According to the text, the mice fed with daytime milk_______.

A.started sleep more easily B. were more anxious

C.were less active D. woke up later

23. Which of the following is true of melatonin according to the text?

A.It’s been tested on mice for ten years

B.It can make people more energetic

C.It exists in milk in great amount

D.It’s used in sleeping drugs

23.What can be a suitable title for the text?

A.Night Milk and Sleep   B. Fat Sugar and Healt

C.An Experiment on Mice D. Milk Drinking and Health

24.How does the author support the theme of the text?

A.By giving examples. B. By stating arguments.

C.By explaining statistical data.  D. By providing research results.

题组四(名校模拟题)

Passage 1(2018届河南省许昌平顶山高三联考)

Persuasion is to convince someone to agree with you, just like art which also calls for special techniques to accomplish. According to the ancient Greeks, there are three basic tools of persuasion: ethos, pathos and logos.

Ethos is a speaker’s way of convincing the audience that he is trustworthy, honest and reliable. One common way a speaker can develop ethos is by explaining how much experience or education he has in the field. After all, you’re more likely to listen to advice about how to take care of your teeth from a dentist than a fireman.

Pathos is a speaker’s way of connecting with an audience’s emotions. For example, a politician who is trying to convince an audience to vote for him might say that he alone can save the country from a terrible war. These words are intended to fill the audience with fear, thus making them want to vote for him. Similarly, an animal charity might show an audience pictures of injured dogs and cats to make the viewers feel pity, so they will be more likely to donate money.

Logos is the use of facts, statistics or other evidence to support your argument. An audience will believe you if you have convincing data to back up your claims. Presenting this evidence is much more persuasive than simply saying “believe me”.

Although ethos, pathos and logos all have their strengths, they are often most effective when used together. So, the next time you listen to a speech, watch a commercial or listen to a friend try to convince you to lend him some money, be on the lookout for these ancient Greek tools of persuasion.

1.What is the purpose of persuasion?

A.To advise somebody to support you.

B.To help someone have special skill

C.To convince somebody to realize his aim.

D.To talk someone into being honest.

2.What is a speaker’s way of convincing the audience to trust him?

A.Pathos. B.Ethos. C. Logos. D. Education.

3.What do a politician and an animal charity have in common?

A.Both prevent themselves from being hurt.

B.Both save people from terrible wars.

C.Both make the audience support them.

D.Both persuade people to donate money.

4.Which of the following can be the best title for the text?

A.Convince the Audience B.Three Basic Tools of Persuasion

C.Believe Me D.Strength of Persuasion

Passage 2(2018届河北省衡水中学高三四模)

James Gross, a psychology professor at Stanford University, has a 13-year-old daughter who loves math and science. “It hasn’t occurred to her yet that’s unusual,” he says. “But I know in the next couple of years, it will.”

She’s already being pulled out of class to do advanced things with a couple of other kids, who are guys. And as someone who studies human emotion for a procession, Gross says, “I know as time goes on, she will feel increasingly lonely as a girl who’s interested in math and science, and be at risk of narrowing her choices in life before finding out how far she could have gone.’’

Gross’ concern clearly shows what has been a touchy subject in the world of science for a long time: Why are there still so few women in science, and how might that affect what we learn from research?

Women now make up half the national workforce, earn more college and graduate degrees than men, and by some estimates represent the largest single economic force in the world. Yet the gender gap in science persists, to a greater degree than in other professions, particularly in high-end, math-intensive fields such as computer science and engineering.

According to US Census Bureau statistics, women in fields commonly referred to as STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) made up 7 percent of that workforce in 1970, a figure that had jumped to 23 percent by 1990. But the rise essentially stopped there. Two decades later, in 2011, women made up 26 percent of the science workforce.

1.According to James Gross, in the near future his daughter may _________ .

A.become a great scientist

B.feel lonely and have fewer choices

C.be pulled out of class with some guys

D.learn math and science better and better

2.We can learn from the text that_________ .

A.women are cleverer than men in college

B.men represent the largest single economic force

C.women make up more than 50% of the national workforce

D.the number of women graduating from college is larger than that of men

3.How does the author develop the last paragraph?

A.By providing examples. B.By making comments.

C.By following time order. D.By explaining the process.

4.Which of the following is the best title for the text?

A.Why It Is Important to Get More Women Into Science

B.James Gross, Confusion About His daughter

C.Situation of Women in the Whole Country

D.Future of women in the Workforce

Passage 3(2017届西安市第一中学高三模考)

The Taj Mahal (泰姬陵)is considered to be one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and the finest example of the late style of Indian architecture (建筑).It is at Agra in northern India. It lies beside the River Jumna in the middle of gardens with quiet pools.

The Taj Mahal was built by the Mogul emperor (皇帝) Shah Jehan, who ruled India in the seventeenth century. It is in memory of his favorite wife, Arjumand Banu Bagam, known as Mumtaz Mahal, who died in 1631. The building, which was completed between 1632 and 1638,was designed by a local Muslim architect(建筑师),Ustad Ahmad Lahori. The whole building, with gardens and gateway structures, was completed in 1643. The Taj Mahal stands at one end of the garden tomb with marble (大理石)path. The room is softly lighted by the light that passes through double screens of carved marble set high in the walls. The building now is kept in good condition.

It took 22 years to build the Taj Mahal. Shah Jehan planned a similar building, but in black instead of white, to lie on the other side of the river. But before it could be built. Shah Jehan was imprisoned (监禁)by his son and buried next to his wife in the Taj Mahal.

1.The Taj Mahal was built for________.

A.Mumtaz B.Shah

C.either Mumtaz or Shah D.both Mumtaz and Shah

2.Why do you think Shah Jehan was buried next to his wife?

A.His own tomb hadn’t been built.

B.He hoped to be buried there.

C.King and Queen should be buried together.

D.He liked Mumtaz all his life.

3.The passage mainly tells us________.

A.why the Taj Mahal was built

B.the love story between Shah and Mumtaz

C.some information about the Taj Mahal

D.the Taj Mahal―the pride of Indians

4.From the passage we can learn that________.

A.the Taj Mahal looks more beautiful than before

B.the Taj Mahal doesn’t exist now

C.the Taj Mahal has completely changed

D.the Taj Mahal has become a place of interest

Passage 4(2017届)

Nowadays, cosmetics(化妆品) are an important part of the life and culture of today.

Cosmetics can cover up the deficiencies of nature. Regular use of a body lotion will keep the skin soft and supple. Whatever product you use, start with a foundation, making sure the color blends with your skin. Some women also use a concealer or primer to hide spots and flaws or blemishes of the skin.

Not only as an act of courtesy(礼貌),but also to look good, women spend time and energy–polishing their appearances. At the very least, lipsticks and foundations can be found in any woman’s purse these days. It is not enough; women always want to be prettier, younger, and more attractive. That is why cosmetic products are so popular among female shoppers.

In recent years, a new trend has emerged. Companies began producing products such ascologne, shaving cream, and shower gel for our male counterparts. The demand increased as men paid more attention to their skins and images. Several manufacturers have devoted part of their product lines for the needs of this new group of customers.

Untouched markets are still enormous. With affordable price tags, skin care, makeup, and fragrance(香味) will continue to expand their user base to preteens and senior citizens in both genders.

1.Why cosmetic products are so popular among female shoppers?

A.To in search of popularity and extravagance.

B.Cosmetics play a role in keeping the skin soft and supple.

C.meets the needs of the cosmetic market.

D.The need for social etiquette mainly for man.

2.The predicate of the underline sentence is"_________".

A.use B.regular use

C.will keep D.keep

3.The main idea in the last second paragraphs is_______.

A.The love for beauty is common to all men.

B.With the development of society, men also pay attention to use cosmetics.

C.It is controversial for men to use cosmetics.

D.A gentleman makes money in right way.

4.Which statement about the article is incorrect?

A.Untouched markets in women using cosmetics are still enormous.

B.Men also want to be prettier, younger, and more attractive.

C.citizens will shop skin care with affordable price.

D.Skin care regardless of men and women.

 

 

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高考英语考点——情景交际

2020-1-21 12:41:09

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2020-1-27 9:00:49

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